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Full text of "Watertown, N.Y. : a history of its settlement and progress, with a description of its commercial advantages : as a manufacturing point, its location, its unsurpassed water power, its industries and general features of attraction to capitalists and manufacturers"

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Times and Reformer Print, Watertown, N. Y, 

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®ne of tl)e Jalnst of Cities, 









liNCFiciiiiErs ill) mmim 

OEaANIZED JAN. 25, 1875. 


" The o/^'ec-/ of the Association shall be to make an organized and 
systematic effort to develope and aid the manufacturing interests of 
the city of Watertown." 

CiEN. Bradi.kv Winslow President. 

J )r. H. M. Stevens Vice-President. 

Charles R. Skinner Corresponding Secretary. 

W . C. Haven Recording Secretary. 

John F. Moffett Treasurer. 








We urge you most earnestly to examine with care the con- 
tents of the following pages, which are intended to set forth — perhaps 
hastily, but we trust fairly — some of the attractions which our city 
possesses as a desirable location for all classes of persons. 

The officers ot this Association will take great pleasure in furnish- 
ing additional information to all who may desire, not only by prompt 
attention to correspondence, which is urgently invited, but by per- 
sonal eftbrt and attention to all who may visit our city with- a view 
of locating with us, giving the additional assurance that all will be 
heartily welcomed and hospitably entertained. 

If what is said shall produce a favorable impression upon any 
person, in any quarter ; inspire any intention to consider our claims, 
or arouse a spirit of favorable inquiry, to all such we give the assur- 
ance that we most cordially invite candid correspondence and 
inquiry, and that we have tnore to say. 

Of ALf. Things Water is the Best." — Pindar. 


The primary object of this pubHcation is to present in an impar- 
tial, although incomplete manner, some of the many advantages 
possessed by our city as a manufacturing point. While thus seeking 
to carry out the fundamental object of the Association, as expressed 
on a preceding page, a mutual benefit may result to our own city and 
its people by adding to its industries, and to those seeking new fields 
of labor by calling their attention to Watertown as a healthy, 
lively and energetic city. To this end the following description ot 
it location, its resources, its inducements, and its industries, is intend- 
ed to invite the attention of live and energetic capitalists, manufac- 
turers and others seeking opportunity for investment, or desiring a 
home in a growing and healthy community, to its manifest 
attractions, as a favorable location, and as an excellent field for the 
development of industrial talent, and the profitable production of 
skilled labor. 

First among the claims of our city, stands pre-eminently its unsur- 
passed wafer power. 

In this connection it may be said, if comment is necessary, that 
modern science has demonstrated that water is the cheapest., safest^ 
surest and best power known, and any facts bearing upon it are be- 
coming to be earnestly and candidly considered. The value of a 
falling stream to the manufacturing interests of the world is entirely 
l)eyond calculation. Its flow is ceaseless, nature exacts no royalty 
and it seems the perfection of power, inasmuch as the advance of 
civilization and enlightenment interferes not with its strength, less- 
ens not its force, and suggests no possible improvement. 

Black River, which has its source in the midst of the myriad 
lakes which abound in the great forests of the North, and which 
flows with steady and rapid course through the very heart of our city, 


falling one hundred and twelve feet in its flow through our borders, 
presents alluring charms to the progressive manufocturer. and invites 
him to seize a share of the wealth which she so freely distributes to 
such as are willing to curb her power and make good use of her 
strength. This power, the finest and most available in the country, 
froms the foundation of our desire to attract the attention of intelli- 
gent and industrious strangers to us. 

It furnishes almost a natural water-power, with a full and rapid 
flow, requiring little outlay in any artificial direction, and we believe 
it no exaggeration to claim that no other river in the State or nation 
furnishes as much and as available power in the same distance, as 
Black Rivei' supplies in its passage throut^h our corporate limits. 

In addition to this important natural advantage we claim for our 
city a most favorable location in a thickly settled, prosperous, fertile 
and healthy portion of the State, surrounded by a wealthy and 
industrious population, who have grown up with the country and 
contributed to its prosperity and good name by an active and ear 
nei^t mdustry in the various pursuits which engage the attention of 
an honest, careful and prudent people. 

We believe a careful perusal of what may follow, with incpnry as 
to what may have been omitted, will convince strangers now unde- 
cided where to locate in manufacturing or other enterprises, that we 
have some honest claims upon their consideration. 

We have here a surplus of power sufficient to turn the wheels of 
scores of manufactories yet unbuilt, which only awaits more skilled 
hands of j^ractii-al workmen to develope industries which shall yield 
abundant profit and rich reward. We believe that nothing is want- 
ed but more organizing minds, more willing hands, more practical 
direction to make our city one of the leading manufacturing cities 
of the country. Her manufacturing interest is to-day one of her 
brightest possessions, but it may be doubled with tenfold profit, and 
our noble river is already here, ready to do its part in the work. 

In this work we have also sought to present in an unprejudiced 
manner, the general attractions of our city from many standpoints — 
our aim being not to attract manufacturers only, but good citizens of 
all classes. To this end we have devoted many pages to the consid- 
eration ot \ arious topics of local interest, with a view of giving all 
in(|uirers all the information possible in reference to every attractive 
feature of our city, its growth and present condition. 






I St. Its unsurpassed and almost unlimited water power, furnished 
by Black River, which falls nearly 112 feet within the city limits. 

2d. It is located in the most fertile and productive portion of 
Northern New York, and in one of the most thriving and prosperous 
agricultural counties in the State. 

3rd. It is the virtual centre of a railway system which has its out- 
lets at favorable points in the interior of the State, and at the best 
ports on the ^' Great Lakes of the North." 

4th. It therefore possesses the advantages of railway competition, 
all competing lines expressing and showing a liberal .spirit toward all 
manufacturing enterprises. 

5th. It is situated in the midst of vast and valuable mineral 
deposits, chief among which are inexhaustible beds of the finest iron 
ore to be found in the United States, many of which are in full and 
successful operation. 

6th. Within the limits of the city lie portions of a ridge of lime- 
stone miles in extent, which, it has been demonstrated, has no super- 
ior as 2ifiux for use in the reduction of iron ore. 

7th. It has direct railroad communication with the vast coal 
regions of Northern Pennsylvania, by two competing railroad lines. 

8th. It has direct railroad communication with the lumbering 
interest of adjoining counties, with lake and river ports, receiving 
lumber from the West, and with the great pine forests of Canada. 


9th. It is within ten miles of one of the best harbors on the great 
lakes, with which it is connected by rail, thus affording direct com- 
munication by water, with the grain, lumber and mineral industries 
of the North West. 

loth. It is situated in the midst of the most productive tanning 
interest of the State — ^Jefferson and adjoining counties being large 
producers of live stock, and the material for reducing hides to leather. 

nth. The government of the city is based on the strictest ideas of 
economy, consistent with safe and sure progress, and the spirit of the , 
people is decidedly in favor of every measure intended to make the 
rate of taxation low. The officers of the city are pledged to carry 
out this idea. 

1 2th. Statistics show that it is one of the healthiest cities in the 
Union, subject to no contagious diseases, and free from prevailing 
sickness. The rate of mortality in 1875 was only one in seventy. 

13th. Its public school system has been placed upon a satisfactory 
foundation, and affords excellent educational facilities. 

14th. The cost of living is much less than in larger cities. 

15th. Its social advantages are numerous, the tone of society 
healthy, and the morals of the community beyond dispute. 

1 6th. Its great wealth, which is just now seeking investment in 
desirable and well conducted manufacturing pursuits. 



Watertown is the capital of Jefferson county, one of the most 
thriving counties in the State of New York. It is situated upon both 
banks of Black River, seven miles from its mouth, where the river 
mingles with the waters of Lake Ontario. The river divides the city 
into two unequal portions, which are connected with each other by 
three bridges, two of wood and one an iron suspension. 

It is 250 miles N. W. of New York City, 147 miles W. N. W. of 
Albany, 72 miles N. of Rome, 90 miles N. W. of Utica, 69 miles 
N. of Syracuse, 60 miles N. E. of Oswego, 76 miles S. of Ogdens- 
burg, with all of which cities it has direct and unbroken railroad 
connection. It is also 10 miles East of Sackets Harbor, one of the 
finest harbors on Lake Ontario, and 25 miles South of Cape Vin- 
cent, a fine port on the St. Lawrence river, opposite Kingston, Ont., 
and one of the prominent outlets of a flourishing Canadian trade. 
With both the last named points Watertown has direct railroad con- 
nection. It is also connected by rail with Clayton, a thriving village 
on the St. Lawrence river, opposite Gananoque, which is also an 
outlet of Canadian trade — and with Morristown a prosperous village 
a few miles farther down the river, opposite Brockville, Ontario. 
Kingston, Brockville and Gananoque, with Prescott, opposite Ogdens- 
burg, are important points on the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. 
Kingston is the terminus of the Kingston and Pembroke railroad^ 
penetrating a productive lumber country. Brockville is the terminus 
of the Brockville and Ottawa railroad, and also of the Rideau canal, 
both passing through important lumber districts. Prescott is the 
terminus of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa railroad. 

It will be seen that nothing can be more favorable than the geo- 
graphical location of Watertown, commercially considered. It is an 
element of strength which cannot be well overlooked by those who 
look at the question of location with commercial eyes. 

The city is situated in the very heart of one of the richest agricul- 
tural regions in the State, to which fact is largely due the substantial 
growth, thrift, enterprise and prosperity which have become its recog- 
nized features with those who know its history best. Its prosperity 
is second to no city of its size in the United States. It is in fact the' 
leading commercial city of Northern New York. 



It is hard to resist the temptation offered by a study of local his- 
tory, to enlarge more fully, and entirely beyond the scope of this 
small book, and beyond the main object in view, upon the interest- 
ing and attractive history which surrounds our city and county. We 
sacrifice local desire which would eagerly grasp it to the necessity of 
a plain statement of facts connected with the " first days of Water- 
town," and confine ourselves to the consideration of a few truths and 
statements which bear more directly upon present issues. 


The town of Watertown was first surveyed in the year 1796 by 
Benjamin Wright, a native of Connecticut, who was employed by 
the State to survey the northern and central portions of New York 
State, and who later in life was the originator of the first legislative 
steps toward the construction of the Erie canal, of which subsequently 
he was one of the chief engineers. His work in Jefferson county was 
performed through fatigue and hardships. Trackless forests contested 
every step of progress, and savages by day and wolves and panthers 
by night disputed his rights and were unwelcome visitors at his camp 


Settlements commenced in this vicinity in March, 1800, at which 
time Henry Coffeen, a native of Vermont, and Zachariah Butterfield, 
having during the previous fall visited the town and purchased farms, 
removed here with their families, and began improvements upon the 
site now occupied by the city. Mr. Coffeen was first to arrive, hav- 
ing penetrated from Lowville, Lewis county, forty miles east, through 
the woods with his family and household goods drawn on an ox-sled. 
He erected his hut at a point near where Court street now enters 
Public Square. Mr. Butterfield settled and built where Washington 
Hall now stands. Oliver Bartholemew, a native of Connecticut and 
a revolutionary soldier, arrived in town in March, 1800, and settled 
a few miles to the northward. In the ensuing winter, 1 800-1, but 
three families wintered here, those of Coffeen, Butterfield and Bar- 
tholemew. They were soon followed by many others, among whom 
were Hart Massey, Asaph Mather, Jonathan Cowan and Thomas 



Mr. Benjamin Wright who made the survey of the town in 1796, 
made the following report concerning one of the lots upon wiiich the 
city is built : 

" [Watertown.] Along the river there is some good land and 
some that is broken and rocky. The river is amazing rapid and 
rocky ; some falls along the river which may be made good mill 
seats, and some excellent pine timber along the river. On the east 
line is a fine country. The west line is of good quality. There are 
some fine mill seats in this town which on the map are marked ' falls ' 
and ' rapids.' To speak generally I think this to be an excellent town- 
ship, and scarcely any poor land upon it. Will settle very fast, if laid 
in lots and sold to settlers." 


The river then, in its primitive strength and beauty, was first to at- 
tract the attention of the settlers, and from the extraordinary amount 
and convenience of its water power, so early discernible to the keen 
minds of the pioneers, the city derived its name, a name which she 
has borne with honor for more than three-quarters of a century. To 
this cause, coupled with the foresight and energy of its founders, may 
be mainly attributed the early and rapid growth of the city, and the 
superiority in wealth and business which the city so rapidly devel- 
oped, and which is still one of its distinguishing characteristics. 

The confident expectation of the good men who came through the 
forests to build their humble huts upon the banks of Black River, 
that the fine water power here found would develope industries 
which would make the spot the centre of a large and prosperous 
business city in the years to come, have been well realized. 


The years 180 1-2 witnessed quite a lively immigration into the 
county, many of the settlers coming from Oneida county, and locat- 
ing in Watertown, attracted hither by the same causes which first led 
to its settlement, and which gave the spot its name. In addition to 
this the fertility of the soil was an element which impressed favorably 
those who were disposed to " pitch their tents " and cast their fortunes 


here. The land books of the county during the years 1 799-1 800- 
1801 and 1802 showed an mcreasing demand for lots in this region, 
and hundreds of sales were recorded. The earliest records in the 
County Clerks office were made in 1805. 

In September, 1802, over eighty families had arrived from the east- 
ern States and counties and settled in the little hamlet or its vicinity. 
In the next succeeding two or three years, scores of other families, 
whose names are identified with the early history of the region, and' 
with its growth and progress, many of whom were mechanics, came 
into the then new " Black River Country," bought their litde farms, 
erected their humble dwellings, and began anew their labors to 
reduce the wilderness into a fertile valley, and enjoy the delights of 
their new homes. During the year 1802 a hotel was opened by Dr. 
Isaiah Massey, and Jonathan Cowan built the first dam across Black 
River at a point now known as Beebee's Island. 


During the first summer of the settlement of Watertown, it being 
entirely impossible to procure grinding at any mills nearer than Can- 
ada, from twenty-five to fifty miles distant through the wilderness, a 
stump standing upon what is now known as Public Square, a few 
rods east of the American Hotel as it exists to-day, had been formed 
into a mortar, with a spring pole and pestle attached. This served 
the purpose of a grain mill for the settlement, and was no doubt the 
era of " low tolls." This primitive implement suggestive of rustic life 
and the privations of a new colony, relieved the pioneers in some de- 
gree from long and perilous journeys "to mill" through a pathless 
forest abounding in more game in the shape of wolves and panthers 
and their kind, than was especially pleasant to honest and frugal and 
happy toilers who had a future to look to and provide for. 

The settlers of the region were mostly poor. There were no bloated 
bondholders in those times, " banks discounts " were an unknown 
luxury, the bulls and bears had not been let loose in Wall Street — the 
honest Continental currency had scarcely passed out of circulation, 
and speculators were mostly confined to speculations as to how they 
could best earn an honest living. But although they possessed few 
of the comforts of life and none of its luxuries save industry, the pio- 
neers had but few wants. The needful articles of the household were 


mostly made with their own hands, the bread they ate was wrought 
from the productive soil they found, and artificial grades of society 
existed only in books. The little " stump grist mill " should have 
been preserved in its simplicity as an evidence of the birth of that 
spirit of enterprise which now displays a round half dozen flourishing 
flour mills, kept ever busy to meet the growing demands of the times. 


The subject of manufacturing, using Black River as the motive 
power, received the early and careful attention of the pioneers. They 
were quick to see the powerful agent which nature had placed within 
their reach flowing so noisily past their humble dwellings, and they 
were prompt in making diligent use of the advantage offered. In 
1802 Jonathan Cowan, a millwright, came herefrom Saratoga county, 
and began the erection of a grist mill at the bridge which crosses to 
Beebee's Island. This island (which is shown on the map") formed a 
part of Cowan's original purchase, and is said to have been offered 
by him at an early period for ten dollars. The customer offered five 
dollars, but the contracting parties being unable to agree, the bargain 
failed. They little dreamed that the same island commanding as it 
does the finest power the river, would within a few years be worth 
more than their united fortunes. 

In 1803 a bridge was built below the village (the lower bridge 
shown in map and illustrations) by Henry Coffeen and Andrew Ed- 
munds, and in 1805 a dam was built below the bridge, which is still 
standing. In the same year a saw-mill was built on the north side, 
and in 1806 a grist mill by Seth Bailey and Gershom Tuttle. A 
saw-mill was erected on the south side soon after, and a saw and 
grist mill by H. H. Coffeen. 


In 1805 John Paddock and William Smith who were among the 
more recent arrivals, opened to a wondering and well pleased public, 
the first " store " in the place, bringing their goods from Utica, ninety 
miles in wagons. An idea of the hardships attending the mercantile 
interest of that day may be drawn from the fact that in March, 1807, 
seventeen sleighs laden with goods for these pioneer merchants were 


twenty three days in coming from Utica to Watertown — a distance 
now traversed in less than four hours, many times each day by two 
flourishing railroad lines. 

The pioneers of Watertown turned everything to account for 
trade, and as in other sections, the manufacture of potash formed 
the first means of realizing cash. Many paid in whole or in part for 
their lands by this means. In 1806, $3,500 ; in 1807, $6,000; and 
in 1808, $9,000 v/orth of this staple was exchanged, the market being 
at that time in Montreal. In 18 10, the firm of Paddock & Smith, 
the first merchants, purchased 2,800 barrels, averaging $40 per barrel, 
making for that period the enormous aggregate of $112,900. The 
declaration of war in 1812, entirely prostrated this industry, and in 
fact many others for many years. 

THE WAR OF 181 2. 

The close proximity of Watertown to Sackets Harbor during the 
"unpleasantness" with Great Britain in 1812-15, the latter point 
being at that period an important naval station of the U. S. Govern- 
ment, and the scene of one or two spirited battles, was sufficient rea- 
son for a very general interest on the part of her people in the pro- 
gress and result of the contest. Within hearing of the cannon which 
finally drove the enemy from the scene, there were many outbursts 
of excitement and patriotism, and the people contributed of their 
number and their means to carry on the conflict to a successful issue. 

By an act of March 27, 1809, an arsenal was erected in Watertown 
in that year, and five hundred stand of arms deposited therein. The 
arsenal was built by Hart Massey, then collector of the district of 
Sackets Harbor, at an expense of $1,940.99. This was before the day of 
" contracting, corruption and investigation." The street upon which 
it stood was patriotically called Columbia Street, now Arsenal Street, 
and the building was maintained as an arsenal until it was sold 
by act of April 9, 1850, and used for more peaceful purposes. Bodies 
of troops were stationed at Watertown for short periods, and the sick 
were often sent hither for the attendance which could not be secured 
at Sackets Harbor. The Academy which was built in 181 1 was used 
as a hospital for a considerable time during the continuance, of the 



It was early apparent that Watertown possessed extraordinary 
inducements to manufacturers, and after the erection of Cowan's grist 
mill — the first manufacturing enterprise of which record is made, 
other institutions sprang into existence within a few years, many of 
which have been in active operation ever since. 

From the only records attainable, the following brief account of 
the earlier manufacturing industries is made: 


In 1808 a paper mill was built above CoAvan's gristmill by Gurdon 
Caswell from Oneida County. Other paper mills were built soon 
after, and in 1824 Knowlton & Rice commenced the business which 
is still continued by Knowlton Brothers, whose flourishing estab- 
lishment is illustrated and mentioned elsewhere. In 1832 this mill 
introduced into the county the first machinery for making paper. 


The extraordinary prices to which cotton fabrics had arisen, led to 
the formation of the Black Rivet' Cotton 2.nd Woolen Manufacturijig 
Company which was formed December 28, 18 18, with a capital of 
$100,000. The promoters of this scheme were Hart Massey, William 
Smith, M. W. Gilbert, John Paddock, Egbert Ten Eyck, Amos Bene- 
dict, Wilham Tanner, Jason Fairbanks and Perley Keyes. The build- 
ing (of stone) was erected in 1814 at a cost of $72,000. Local his- 
tory relates that there was at this time considerable prejudice against 
the use of machinery, in place of hand labor ; and Spafiford in the 
Gazetteer of New York wrote as follows on this subject : "The 
automaton habits, and the moral tendencies of these establishments 
will be better understood fifty years hence." It may be said that the 
fifty years has elapsed and that the more the world sees of " automa- 
ton habits " in manufacturing enterprises the better it likes them. 
This mill was carried on by the company for three years — was a few 
years subsequently sold for $7,000, passed into other hands and was 
destroyed by fire in 1869. 


In 1827 the yefferso7i Cotto?i Mills were erected on Beebee's Island 
by Levi Beebee, a native of Connecticut, who came here from Coop- 
erstown, N. Y. They were constructed of stone, 250 by 65 feet, and 
three stories high with basement and wings. It was intended for ten 
thousand spindles, and its value was estimated at $200,000. On 
Sunday, July 7, 1833, the building was entirely destroyed by fire. 
Hough in his History well says : " Perhaps no private enterprise ever 
gave a stronger impulse to the growth of Watertown than the erec- 
tion of these mills, and no single calamity was ever felt more severely 
than their loss." The site of this factory is one of the most eligible in 
the State for hydraulic purposes. 

The Wate7-toivn Cotton Mills Company with $100,000 capital was 
formed January loth, 1834, Isaac H. Bronson, Jason Fairbanks, 
Samuel F. Bates, John Sigourney and Joseph Kimball as trustees. 
This association continued several years, and was replaced by the 
Wateiiown Cotton Company with a capital of $12,000, formed Janu- 
ary 7th, 1846, with E. P. Throop Martin, Daniel Lee, S. Newton 
Dexter, H. Holcomb and John Collins, trustees. The company occu- 
pied the building already mentioned constructed in 18 14, and run 
fifty looms with proportionate machinery. 

The Ha7nilton Woolen Mills Company was formed February loth, 
1835, with a capital of $50,000, by Henry D. Sewall, George Gould- 
ing, John C. Lashar, Simeon Boynton and John Goulding. On the 
loth of March following, the capital of the company was increased 
to $100,000 under the name of the Hamilton Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Mr. Sewall built a dam and factory, and the latter went into 
operation in the spring of 1836. It was designed for five sets of 
cards, with the necessary machinery. In May, 1842, this mill was 
bought by the Black River Woolen Compa?iy which had been formed 
November 7th, 1836. with a capital of $50,000, the trustees being 
I. H. Bronson, S. N. Dexter, O. Hungerford, John Williams, Hiram 
Holcomb and Daniel Lee. This company also erected a factory, 
which after several years successful operation was destroyed in 1841. 
The mill was afterward repaired and put in operation by Loomis 
& Co., employing seventy hands. 

The Watertown Woolen Company was formed February 4th, 1834, 
with $100,000 capital, with I, H. Bronson, John A. Rodgers, John 
Williams, S. Newton Dexter and H. Holcomb as trustees. 

The Watertoivn Woolen Manufacturing Compa?iy was formed Dec. 
24th, 1835, with J. Williams, I. H. Bronson, H. Holcomb, D. Lee 


and Silas Clark as trustees, and a capital of $25,000. These existed 
a few years, but no record exists of what was accomplished. 

The Williams Woolen G?;;//^;{y was formed November 7th, 1836, 
with a capital of $10,000, and was in operation many years. I. H. 
Bronson,S. N. Dexter, J. Williams, H. Holcomb and Charles Weber 
were the promoters of the organization. The premises were changed 
to a tannery. 


The first tannery on an extensive scale was built by Jason Fair- 
banks, m 1823. It was afterwards burned, and rebuilt in 1833. Two 
other large tanneries were built before the year 1827. 


The first machine shop for the manufacture of iron into castings 
and machinery was built by N. Wiley in 1820, and the first foundry 
by R. Bingham. 

In 1823 George Goulding commenced the manufacture of iron, 
and in 1825 William Smith engaged in the same pursuit. The former 
was engaged on Norton's (now Sewall's) island in making mill gear- 
mgs, factory machiney, and to a less extent, steam engines. After- 
ward for many years the firm existed as Goulding, Bagley <S: Sewall, 
and the business is now continued by the last two gentlemen. Their 
flourishing foundry is illustrated and described elsewhere. Mr. Smith 
was heavily engaged in manufacturing mill gearings and castings, 
stoves, hollow-ware and agricultural implements, on Beebee's Island. 
The site of his first foundry is now occupied by Gilderoy Lord, for a 
similar purpose, and does a large business. Smith's second foundry 
is still standing at the western end of the Island. 

In 1 84 1, Cooper (S: Woodruff built on the north side of the river, 
opposite Beebee's Island, a foundry and machine shop, and manu- 
factured factory machinery, mill irons and steam engines, afterwards 
turning their attention to the building of railroad cars. These exten- 
sive works were burned July 22d, 1853, occasioning a severe loss to 
the proprietors and the public at large. 

We have not attempted to give a full and complete history of all 
the manufacturing enterprises connected with the early history of our 
city. Such a work would be difticult and result in no particular 
benefit. We have simply sought to illustrate the fact that the manu- 
facturing spirit was early manifested by the sturdy and enterprising 


men who made up the community, and we hope to show in the sub- 
sequent pages that this spirit has never been allowed to droop, but 
surmounting obstacles which in many places would have proved too 
great to overcome, still exists and is one of the vital elements of our 
present existence and prosperity. 



Black River has its source almost in the very heart of the Adi- 
rondac wilderness — a region abounding in forests and containing hun- 
dreds of lakes. The actual source of the river is a small lake in 
Hamilton county, situated in a direct line about one hundred miles 
from Watertown. In its winding course the river must traverse a much 
greater distance. Within its first twenty-five miles it receives the out- 
flo^v of numerous lakes of various sizes, most prominent of which are 
the South Branch, North Branch. Chubb, Bisby and Gull Lakes. The 
latter is 2,018.88 feet above tide water. These lakes with their out- 
letting streams drain a large portion of Herkimer county, and the 
northeastern portions of Oneida county. 

About thirty miles from its source Black River receives the contents 
of Moose River, a formidable rival which has its source in Lake 
Fonda in the northwestern part of Hamilton county. It flows across 
Hamilton county and unites with Black River at Port Leyden, Lewis 
county. Moose River is not far from fifty miles m length, and among 
a score of others receives the contents of Moose Lake, (2,239.21 feet 
above tide water) Lime Kiln Lake, the Fulton Chain, comprising 
the 4th, 7th and 8th Lakes, so called. Shallow Lake, &c. 

A few miles farther on Black River receives Fish Creek, which lat- 
ter is the outlet of Brantingham Lake. Besides other smaller inlets 
near the last mentioned, its next contribution is received within a few 
miles, when Independence River empties into it the contents of a lake 
of the same name situated near the eastern boundary of Herkimer 


Ten miles farther on, at Croghan, Lewis county, Black River 
receives the contents of Beaver River which has its source in Smith's 
Lake in the extreme northern part of Herkimer county. This river 
is the outlet of almost innumerable smaller lakes, among the more 
prominent being Albany, Rock, Burnt and Salmon Lakes, and the 
Red River Chain. 

Th'^re are other considerable streams entering Black River from 
the south, and it is hardly more than a fair estimate to say that the 
river with its numerous branches, drains a territory of 2,000 square 
miles or 1,280,000 square acres. 

It must thus be seen that the river at Watertown must be of for- 
midable proportions, and possess all the power and importance 
claimed for it. 

The action already taken by the Legislature of the State, to pre- 
serve the region of the Adirondacs as a " State Park " is very import- 
ant in securing for all time to come, an ample supply of water, not 
only for the Black River, but for the sources of the Hudson River on 
the south and the numerous tributaries of the St. Lawrence River on 
the north. The measure is one which deserves the attention and 
encouragement of all who can realize the importance of the immense 
advantages to be realized from its successful accomplishment. The 
protection and preservation of the forests and wilds of this region 
will not only preserve and perpetuate to the northern rivers the 
advantages they now possess, but will secure to genuine sportsmen 
a boundless field for their enjoyment. 

It is a well know fact that streams which have their sources in the 
wilderness are more even in their flow throughout the }ear, and less 
subject to freshets and droughts than are those whose water sheds are 
smooth or cultivated land. Nature seems to have provided the bogs 
and rooty jingles of the northern forests to hold like a sponge the super- 
abundance of water from the melting snows of spring, and to let 
them out for us little by little as our needs require, instead or send- 
ing the whole volume down upon us at once, the result of which 
would be as serious as recent instances in the New England States 
where civilization has encroached so boldly upon the mountainous 
districts of their river sources. 

Black River, rising as it does in the midst of almost eternal springs, 
stretching out its arms and fingers in every direction into the moun- 
tain defiles, drainmg from each a constant and steady supply of water 


from mountain lakes, and springs and meadows, gives abundant 
assurance of a never ending power, which gathers its force from a 
thousand sources, and in its fuhness hurls it past our city, over rocks 
and ledges, and which temptingly invites the water wheel and the 
varied industries of the nation to come and avail themselves of its 
strength and majesty. 

For several miles above the city, the river flows rapidly over a 
solid rocky bed of Trenton and Birdseye limestone making the water 
pure and healthy, and well aerated for supplying the city, but com- 
ing as it does from a granite region, the water is almost as soft as the 
purest rain water, which renders it especially well adapted for use in 
the manufacture of cotton and woolen fabrics. 

The rocky nature of the bed and banks of the river in the vicinity 
of Watertown is the fullest guarantee against all disasters arising from 
the washing away of banks or the undermining of dams. 


Upon the organization of the Manufacturers' Aid Association, it 
was decided that a careful and scientific survey be made of the 
river upon whose power we base in so large a measure the distinctive 
attractions of our city, with a view of ascertaining in a definite an 
unmistakable manner, the exact measure of the power derived from 
the river in its passage through the corporate limits of Watertown. 
To this end a systematic survey was made by Mr. Frank A. Hinds, 
civil engineer, assisted by Mr. Fred. W. Fames, two gentlemen well 
calculated, and abundantly qualified to do the work assigned them. 
We (juote the following from Mr. Hinds' report : 

'' I have made a survey of Black River throughout the extent of 
the city of Watertown, and in accordance with your wishes herewith 
submit a report of that survey together with a map and profile. (See 

"A level was carefully taken of the water from the point where the 
river enters the city at its eastern limit, to the point where it leaves 
it at its westerly boundary, a distance of less than two miles, includ- 
ing in detail all the numerous falls and rapids both improved and 
unimproved. The whole amount of fall within this distance I have 
found to be iii-75 feet. Eighty three feet of this noticable fall is 
included between the upper and lower railroad bridges, as seen by the 
accompanying map. 

"There are five distinct falls between the points named. The river 
was guaged at a point about two miles above the city, where its 
course is straight and level for a considerable distance, and it was 
found to deliver 596,728 cubic feet of water per minute. This meas- 
urement was taken on the 2 2d of March, and although the water 
was very little if any higher than the ordinary winter flow, and the 
ice still unbroken, a deduction equal to one-third was made, to 
insure a safe estimate of the fair working average of the year. This 
allowance gives an average delivery of 397,819 cubic feet per minute. 
This, multiplied by 62.3 and 11 1.75, and divided by 33.000, gives 
83,928 as the average actual horse power for the whole river in its 


passage through the entire city. If a still farther allowance is made 
of two-thirds of this amount for leakage, clearance, friction and una- 
voidable waste, we still have 27,976 horse power, which may be 
regarded as effectual, and available to turn machinery. 


" Aside from the unused power which now flows over the dams 
already built, there is an opportunity for raising a dam eight or nine 
feet at a point below all the present improvements, near the mouth 
of Cowan's Creek (shown on the map near the western boundary of 
the city), which would furnish between two thousand and three 
three thousand additional and effectual horse power, and is immedi- 
ately adjoining the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg railroad track. 

" There is also on the north side of Beebee's Island, and below 
the falls, an excellent point for a dam, now unused, and especially 
desirable on account of its central location, being in the very heart 
of the city. Three thousand effectual horse power could easily be 
gained here at a comparative slight expense. 

" Again, at a point near the eastern limit of the city, the whole 
river falls abruptly fourteen feet over a ledge of rocks, offering natu- 
ral advantages rarely met with for the purpose of large mechanical 
operations. At this point may readily be added over thirty-five 
hundred actual horse power that may be realized to turn machinery. 
This point is convenient to both lines of railways entering the city. 

" Still other points along the river are susceptible of improvement 
in this respect, though of less extent, and all accessible to excellent 
railroad facilities." 

Considering this most favorable showing, Watertown may well 
challenge any other point to show similar advantages, or a like instru- 
ment of power and usefulness. 

It may be here stated that those now interested in the ownership 
of available water rights now unoccupied, show a liberal spirit in offer- 
ing their rights to such as desire to locate here. It some cases, the 
owners offer to donate some of the finest water rights to manufactur- 
ers who will come here and use them. Further information upon 
this point will be cheerfully given upon application, and inducements 
offered which men of enterprise cannot afford to overlook. The feel- 
ing manifested now is, to encourage any movement to utilize all our 

L — 


vast power, that nothing that can be used shall be allowed to go to 
waste. This is regarded as one of the most important of the many 
advantages offered. . 

Mention may also be made of the unlimited number of points 
along the river between this city and Brownville, four miles distant, 
capable of being improved, and which would yield an almost incal- 
culable amount of water power. The river is rapid, in many places 
narrow, and excellent points for the erection of powerful dams pre- 
sent themselves in each mile of the distance. 


Two important maps are shown in connection Avith the illustra- 
tions given in this pamphlet, to which the attention of inquiring 
readers is invited. Both are the work of Mr. F. A. Hinds of this 
city, who was especially engaged to present in this attractive man- 
ner some of the many advantages possessed by our city. They 
are as follows : 


No. I. " Map showing the location and railroad connections of 
Watertown, with its tributary Agricultural, Mineral and Lumber 
producing regions." 

In many senses this majj speaks for itself, and must prove to the 
observer at a glance, an almost visible demonstration of the truth 
of the claims we have sought to present in words elsewhere. The 
admirable location of Watertown for manufacturing purposes is 
plainly apparent and truthfully represented. The course of Black 
River, rising in the wilderness and fed by mountain streams is clearly 
shown with many of the lakes which form its sources, and con- 
tribute to it that power of which we boast. The various iron mines 
so plentifully found in Northern New York, are faithfully pointed 
out, and suggest to those familiar with geological formations the vast 
wealth which underlies all this region. The lumber producing dis- 
tricts covering so large a portion of the Northern wilderness, and of 
the Canadian Provinces are illustrated, and tell of a never ending 
supply of the finest timber grown on the continent, within easy reach 


of our city. The map also shows our city as located in the midst 
of one of the finest and most productive agricultural regions of the 

The great lakes of the North, the lines of railroad extending in 
every direction, are made prominent, and all is sugjgestive of advan- 
tages which should not escape attention. Excellent receiving and 
shipping facilities are a most noticeable feature of our situation. 
Direct and speedy connection is shown with the iron mines located 
so near the city, — with the coal mines of Pennsylvania — the lumber 
regions of Northern New York and Canada — the grain States and 
mineral localities of the West. In fact Watertown is the centre of 
a system of railway facilities second to no other locality for general 
advantages offered. We let the map itself tell the rest of the story. 


No. 2. " Map of the city of Watertown. and profile showing the 
water power of Black River." 

While this map shows the general topographical appearance of 
Watertown, its streets and other points of interest, its principal 
object is to represent the course of the river, and show the points at 
which its power is greatest, the location of the dams, the islands 
which aid in utilizing its power, etc. It will be seen by the shaded 
profile at the left of the map, that the total fall of the river within 
the boundaries of the city is m^ feet — the base line being 120 
feet above Lake Ontario. 

The various falls shown are five in number as follows : First ( at 
lower end of map), 14 feet; Second, 12 feet; Third, 13 feet; Fourth 
(North Branch), 35 feet; Fourth (South Branch), 20 teet; Sixth, 
II feet. 

The North and South Branches refer to the falls on either side of 
Beebee's Island, the principal of which ( North Branch ), is shown 
in the frontispiece of this pamphlet. 




It may be safely claimed of Watertown, that no other inland city 
offers more substantial inducements to attract capital and skill for the 
manufacture of leather into boots and shoes. The trade in this 
branch of mechanical industry is everywhere large and constant. It 
involves few risks, and^ is reasonably sure to give large returns for 
the amount' of capital and labor invested. Experience and industry 
in this direction nowhere fail to be richly rewarded. 

The tanning of foreign and domestic hides into sole, harness and 
upper leather, has, for many years, been a large and important inter- 
est in northern New York, of which Watertown is the most prominent 
point. The hemlock forests of the section being easily accessible, 
furnish many thousands of cords of bark annually for this purpose. 
The Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad traverses an 
extensive bark and tanning section, and the more recent extension 
of the Utica and Black River Railroad opens to some extent the 
great bark suj^ply of John Brown's tract, while the interior of that 
famous region remains still untouched by the woodman's axe — a 
locality which will secure bark to the tanner for hundreds of years to 
come, without noticeable diminution in the supply. 

New York and Boston capitalists have already availed themselves 
of this advantage, and immense sole leather tanneries are located in 
his section, the products of which are shipped to their salesrooms in 
their respective cities. 

There is also an extensive business in the tanning ot domestic 
hides and calfskins conducted in this city and surrounding country, 
a great part of which is finished and sold in this section for the home 
trade, while much of the leather is shipped to Boston in the rough 
state. If the demand required, this could and would be finished into 
upper stock and sold in a home market. The kinds of leather now 
finished are harness, upper, kip and calfskin. 

The city of Watertown, while there is no manufactory of boots 
and shoes for the jobbing trade located here, is conceded by all who 
are conversant with the city and section, as an excellent and profit- 


able point for the establishment of such manufactories. As there is 
no manufactory of this nature between the New York Central Railroad 
and the St. Lawrence River there would be but little local competition. 

The stock and material for boot and shoe manufacture, both sole 
and upper leather, can be obtained directly from first hands. There 
are sole leather tanneries in the immediate vicinity which tan their 
own stock, and sell delivered at the railroad what they would find 
market for at home. The light stock tanneries would prefer a home 
trade and would market their entire tannage here if there was a suffi- 
cient demand. By such a principle of dealing the manufacturer 
would save annually a large amount over those manufacturers who 
buy in the eastern cities, paying freights, commissions and profits to 
dealers. Rents are cheap for buildings, suitable rooms for man- 
ufacturing purposes, and for tenements for families of operatives. 
The expenses of living are low and reasonable, compared with east- 
ern cities and towns where this branch of industry is extensively con- 

The shipping facilities liere are of the best. The Rome, Watertown 
& Ogdensburg Railroad leaves the New York Central Railroad at 
Rome and Syracuse, traversing the frontier counties to Watertown 
and Potsdam Junction, connecting at the last named place with the 
Central Vermont Railroad ; and to Ogdensburg, Oswego and Cape 
Vincent, connecting at each point with lines of steamers and propel- 
lers for Chicago, Detroit and intermediate points. The Utica c\: 
Black River Railroad leaves the New York Central at Utica, extend- 
ing through Oneida, Lewis, and into Jefferson and St. Lawrence 
counties, with termini at Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontaiio, and Clay- 
ton and Morristown on the St. Lawrence River, connecting with 
vessels for the West. These facilities afford reasonable rates of freight 
over the different lines by rail and water to all points East, West, 
North and South. 

Under the present system of the manufacture of boots and shoes, 
a great part of the labor can be procured in the city among the 
industrious working class. 

These are not all the advantages which suggest themselves to the 
careful observer of manufacturing interests, but are the most essential 
and important to our present object. Parties extensively and actively 
engaged in this branch of manufacture at the East, have repeatedly 

Geological Section of the Strata of Jefferson County. 


Gray ^ai'^s(o)je-. 

Lovrai\»e JSJiale. 
Utica Skle. 


Bill ok Rii eiLuuesUme. 
j5i\*As=6yc Jjimes(oiie. 

Calciierous iSaixAsioiie. 
Pot&(k)u Sa)»A&loiie. 

y HciiSvSclaet- t\e, 



^aX (vyvkuxv vu\\vv4"y>cvuj^. 

WATER TOWN, iV. V. 20 

expressed themselves most favorably upon the location and facilities 
which Watertown presents for the successful manufacture of boots 
and shoes. 

Reference is made in other portions of this book to the extent of 
the work already carried on in this branch of trade in this city, and 
also to the extent of the tanning interest in both the city and county. 


To the student in Geology but few sections of the State present 
so many points of interest as Jefferson County. Its catalogue of 
minerals is exceeded in number by only three or four counties, 
while the numerous and apparently inexhaustible beds of iron ore 
on its northern boundaries are among the most valuable of any in 
the State. 

Added to this is the interesting fact, that when the Creator uttered 
his grand fiat : " Let the dry land appear," some portions of Jeffer- 
son County were among the first to respond. In that far away time, 
whose chronology must ever remain mere conjecture, the huge masses 
of rock which help to make up the charms of the Thousand Islands 
were the first to greet the smiles of their Creator. These rocks are 
of a gneissose character, being a mixture of tjuartz. hornblende and 
feldsj^ar, the three elementary minerals which make up the largest 
part of what is known of the earth's surface. 

This rock forms the surface rock of parts of Clayton and contigu- 
ous towns, underlies the greater part of Antwerp, touches Natural 
Bridge, and from thence extends to Carthage, where it forms the 
islands among the rapids of Long Falls. 

Near the latter place, as also at OxBow and Antwerp, are immense 
masses of feldspathic granite, equaling in fineness and beauty the far 
famed Scotch granites, and only awaiting the introduction of proper 
machinery to place it in direct competition with the latter. 

In the same districts are also found white and variegated marbles 
and beautiful specimens of verde antique and serpentine ; but the 


mineral of far more importance is the red oxide,^or specular iron. 
Immense beds of this valuable ore are found lying between the 
gneiss and Potsdam sandstone of the towns of Philadelphia and 
Antwerp, and of a purity ranging from fifty to ninety-six per cent. 
These beds have been worked for the last fifty years, and may be 
worked with tenfold force for many years, if not centuries, to come ; 
the ores, after being mined, finding ready market in different sec- 
tions of the State. 

There must come a time, and seemingly in the near future, when 
these ores will be worked in our own city. Our immense water 
power, our inexhaustible beds of limestone for purposes of flux, and 
the nearness of magnetic oxide and hydrous per-oxide iron ores, 
affording combinations suitable for the manufacture of every grade 
of iron and steel, are among the many items which must influence 
the capitalist in his future investments. 

From the gneiss we ascend to the Potsdam sandstone, which is 
the prevailing surface rock of Alexandria, Theresa, Clayton, Orleans 
and Antwerp. This is an extremely hard, close grained quartzose 
sandstone, easily quarried, hardening with exposure, and furnishing 
very valuable building material. This rock is remarkable for its 
many divisional places, which may be cleaved at any thickness de- 
sired, varying from a single inch to two feet. Unfortunately the 
rock is not so evenly stratified as at Potsdam, but it is nevertheless 
extensively used for building purposes, as well as for lining blast 
furnaces and in the manufacture of glass. When calcined in kilns, 
crushed and sifted, the Theresa variety affords a very white and 
pure sand for the latter purpose, and is exclusively used in the Red- 
wood Glass Factories. 

Passing the Calciferous sandstone, which, from its want of regular 
fracture, and coarse rotten texture is of no use as a building material, 
and can only be utilized in the manufacture of water-lime, we reach 
the Birds- eye Limestone. 

This is quite extensively utihzed in all the central portions of this 
county for lime; as a paving and building stone has been shipped 
to some extent to adjoining counties. Some of the strata are over 
two feet thick and remarkably compact. It breaks with a conchoi- 
dal fracture and weathers to an agreeable dove color. This and the 
Trenton limestone are the surface rocks in the central portions of the 
county. It is a remarkably pure carbonate of lime and if iron 


manufactories were established at this point, would be the best pos- 
sible flux. It has been found by experience to be far more valuable 
for this than the older granular lime rocks. 

Separating the' Birds-eye from the Trenton we have the Black 
River limestone. This layer has been designated as Black marble 
and as the Isle La Motte marble. It is about eight feet thick, but 
from the quantities of flint contained in it, has been found worthless 
for all but the coarser purposes. As the presence of this flint may 
be only local, quarries near by may be ultimately discovered which 
may be worked into mantles and other ornamental uses. The 
numerous caves in and near by Watertown are located in this layer. 

The Trenton limestone surpasses in extent, thickness and economi- 
cal value those which immediately precede it, underlying the towns 
of Champion, Rutland, Watertown, Pamelia, Henderson, Ellis- 
burgh, Adams and parts of Rodman and Hounsfield. Hough 
places its thickness at not less than five hundred feet. Some of its 
layers are rich in bitumen, while others, lying both above and below, 
are entirely destitute of any trace of petroleum. Professor Sterry 
Hunt attributes the appearance of this inflammable substance in the 
Trenton limestone to the transformation of vegetable and in some 
cases animal tissues existing in the rock from the time of their first 
deposition. Layers v/hich are so charged are of little worth as 
building material, while some of those free from this bitumen have 
proved of great value, the Cathedral at Montreal being constructed 
of the latter. 

The student in Paleontology will find the Birds-eye, Black River 
and Trenton limestones particularly rich in fossil remains of the 
lower Silurian age. Coral, crinoids, brachiopods. orthoceratites, 
trilobites and other forms of ancient hfe greet the wondering gaze at 
almost every step. Here blossomed in shoreless seas, those beauti- 
ful stone lilies — encrinites — growing flower-like from submarine soil, 
with uplifted corolla, and delicately fringed petals, an animal yet 
clad with a beauty which Solomon in all his glory could not trans- 

As corals never build beyond a isocryme of 68 ° F., the conditions 
of climate must have been far different from what they are to-day. 
Then eternal summer bloomed throughout the 44th parallel, to be 
ultimately succeeded by a great Ice Age, when masses of congealed 
snow, more than six thousand feet in thickness, with the pressure of 


a ton to every square inch, moved in a North-westerly direction, 
pohshing, plowing out immense valleys, grinding and distributing 
the detritus that man might ultimately find in its bosom the promises 
of seed time and harvest. 

From the inexhaustible beds of limestone, the manufacture of 
calcic oxide (lime) has been quite extensive, and there is no reason 
why this branch of industry should not be indefinitely extended. 
But few sections present beds of purer rock than the Birds-eye, and 
the lime manufactured from it is the very best quality, while some of 
its layers, particularly those of a drab color, are eminently suitable for 
the manufacture of water lime. 

The Trenton terminates in a black shaly mass, running into the 
Utica slate, which forms the surface rock of parts of Champion, 
Rutland and Rodman. There are no beds ot roofing slate in this 
mass, the layers breaking and crumbling in every direction. This 
rock quickly disintegrates when exposed to the atmosphere. It has 
never been utilized, though Professor Emmons thinks that, with 
proper treatment, it might be converted into alum. Its formation 
may be studied to fine advantage at South Rutland where canyons, 
from one to two hundred feet, have been cut down through it by run- 
ning streams, presenting many picturesque and romantic scenes. 

The Lorraine shales present some features belonging to the Utica 
slate. It is more compact, however, in its formation, and belongs 
properly to the Hudson River group. It supports a gray sandstone 
which only needs contiguity of market to prove very valuable. 
This rock is tough, close-grained, compact, weathers admirably, and 
possesses all the virtues of the best building material. 

We append herewith the localities of some of the different minerals 
to be found in the county. The persevering young geologist how- 
ever will find many treasures in old stone walls and in the drift of 
the fields. 

Adams. — Fluor, calc tufa, barite. 

Alexandria. — Fluorite, phlogopite, chalcopyrite, feldspar, tour- 
maline, hornblende, orthoclase, celestite. 

Antwerp. — Specular iron, chalcodite^ spathic iron, millerit^, red 
hematite, crystallized quartz, yellow aragomte, niccoliferous iron 
pyrites, calcite, heavy spar, idiocrase, phlogopite, pyroxene, sphene. 


fluorite, chalcopyrite, bog iron ore, scapolite, serpentine, yellow tour, 
maline, steatite, apatite, graphite. 

Brownville. — Celestite, calcite. 

Natural Bridge (in Wilna). — Feldspar, gieseckite, steatite, horn- 
blende, pyroxine, scapolite, sphene, tremolite wollastonite, 

Omar (in Orleans). — Beryl, feldspar, specular iron. 

Philadelphia. — Garnets, bog ore, specular iron. 

Pamelia. — Agaric mineral, calc tufa. 

Theresa. — Fluor, calcite, specular iron, hornblende, quartz crys- 
tals, serpentine, celestite, strontianite, steatite, tourmaline, verde 
antique, apatite. 

Watertown. — Tremolite, calc tufa, calcite, wad. 




Nearly every kind of soil is found in Jefferson county, from the coars- 
est till, without fertility or organic remains, to the finely comminuted 
alluvium, rich with organic matter and consequent fertility. This 
condition of things is due to the varied sources from which our soils 
have been derived, and the conditions under which they have been 
distributed. By reference to the sketch of economic geology accom- 
panying this publication, it will be seen that the surface of the 
northern, central, and southwestern portions of the county have 
been subjected to the modifying influence of intense glacial erosions. 
In some sections the original soil has been carried away and barren 
rocks left. In others, heavy deposits of drift, composed of coarse 
and fine materials variously intermingled, have been distributed over 
the surface. 

In the northern portions of the county the soils have been mainly 

derived from the Laurentian rocks and have too little organic matter, 

but in many places make fine dairying soils, owing to the abundance 

of potash and lime derived from the decomposed feldspar. Some- 



times there is sufficient organic matter and depth to make most 
durable and valuable lands ; in other districts, sand prevails mainly 
destitute of organic matter or fertility. In the central portions the 
soil is derived more from the underlying limestone in situ, often 
intermingled with drift and a stratum of clay and sand, doubtless 
deposited by the waters of the lake during some of its periods of 
elevation. The hills are mainly covered by soils derived from the 
natural decay of the underlying limestone intermingled with less 
drift. The southern and southwestern portions of the county derive 
their soils principally from the underlying disintegrated slate and 
shale. Soils thus derived in connection with the Trenton limestone 
group are durable and fertile. 

Notwithstanding the abundance of lime rocks in the county, 
analysis shows that many of our soils are deficient in Hme. This is 
owing to the fact that so many of them came from the north during 
the ice periods. There is but Httle inferior land in the county, — this 
is found mainly on the sand plains of the north, and over the Birds- 
eye limestone along a portion of the shores of Black River and the 
lake. They have been denuded by glaciers, and insufficient depth 
remains to retain a proper degree of moisture, not sufficient time 
having since intervened to recover the rocks by natural processes of 
decay. The land as a body is good, durable and fertile, even much 
of the rocky land being valuable for dairying, and producing rich 
nutritious grasses not too lush and watery as in so many districts ot 
the west. 

It will be seen by the foregoing that the horticulturist can select 
the variety of soil best adapted to the special crop he may desire 
to grow. This is a great advantage, making possible the production 
of a variety of useful crops. 

Climate is one of the factors in horticulture which must be care- 
fully considered. Surprising as it may seem to people at a distance 
who have a vague idea that the 44th parallel is too far north to do 
anything of the kind, — owing to the modifying influences of the 
lake, we grow here very successfully, a goodly number of what are 
usually considered tropical or semi-tropical products, such as sweet 
potatoes, melons, tobacco, figs, grapes, etc. This is due to the fact 
that we have at least three full months of steady semi-tropical heat. 

It is an established principle in agriculture that the northern limit 
of production gives a vigor and health to plants not attainable far- 


ther south, chiefly because of the greater exemption from mildew or 
sporadic diseases and injurious insects. This fact enables our horti- 
culturists to produce specialties of superior excellence, such as seeds 
for seedsmen which have given great and increasing satisfaction to 
consumers. The business is a growing one and capable of profitable 
extension into a leading business for large numbers of people. The 
detritus from the Trenton limestone and Lorraine shales furnish an 
admirable soil for this interest. There is every reason to believe 
that a seed store located in this city to work up and manage this 
business would be a profitable mvestment. 

The potato attains great perfection in this county, because our 
climate in the growing season is somewhat similar to that in which 
it originated. We should supply the South with its seed for this 
crop, and the benefits would be interchangable, for better crops 
would be secured there by using seed grown in this section. 


We cultivate successfully here a considerable variety of choice 
fruits such as grapes, apples, pears, plums, cherries, strawberries, 
raspberries, etc. Grapes are purposely placed at the head of this 
list, not that it is now the most important but it undoubtedly will be 
in the near future, and the day is probably not distant when hun- 
dreds of acres will be devoted to this crop, within the belt of land 
influenced by the warm air of the lake. Certainty in securing an 
annual crop is of great money value. When grape vines are laid 
down for winter protection, they never fail to give a plentiful yield. 
Even European grapes ( vitis vinafera) grow herewith a fair degree 
of success, — clusters weighing three pounds having been fruited here 
in the open air. Two hundred miles south they would require 
to be grown under glass. Our natives are more healthy and rugged. 

Could our fruit trees receive the same winter j^rotection as grapes, 
this would be a more successful fruit region. As it is, in sheltered situ- 
ations with wind breaks, good results are attained and the interest 
will extend with more care and attention. There are orchards here, 
sixty years old, still in good bearing condition ; where the bodies of 
trees are protected by boxing they do much better. Some of the 
finest apples in the county, and some of the healthiest and thriftiest 
orchards are found within the city limits of Watertown. Pears are 
hardly as successful as apples, yet do finely. Plums attain great 

36 . WATER TOWN, N. V. 

perfection and should be made a specialty. The country seems 
suited to them, chiefly on account of our comparative exemption 
from the depredations of the curculio. 

Our soil and climate seem especially well adapted to making 
specialties of grapes and plums. In order to test the comparative 
excellence of these two fruits, with other sections more celebrated 
for their production than our own, Mr. D. S. Marvin of this city, a 
scientific and enthusiastic lover of this branch of industry, and who 
has done more than any other person to raise the standard of excel- 
lence in fruit culture in this county, exhibited in 1873 and again in 
1875, in competition with other sections at the Cincinnati Exhibi- 
tion, samples of these fruits grown at Watertown. They received 
the highest premiums on each occasion, being a high compliment, 
and indicating what may be done here in this direction. 

Strawberries and raspberries are likewise cultivated successfully , 
also currants and gooseberries. They all seem to do well and to be 
at home in this climate. Figs have also been ripened in the open 
air at Watertown by Mr. Marvin for the past few years — giving 
them the same winter protection given to grape vines. The climate 
is not suited to peaches. 

There is not sufficient attention paid to the growing of fruits to 
supply the home demand. Prices are good but the supply is inade- 
quate. More workers are wanted in this interest. Apples some- 
times bring one dollar and a half per bushel. The production of 
butter and cheese absorbs too much attention here to develope prop- 
erly the fruit interest. The following apples are best adapted to this 
climate: Golden Russet, Roxbury Russet, Duchess of Oldenburgh, 
Tallman Sweet, Northern Spy, Ben Davis, Fameuse, 20 Ounce Pip- 
pin, Red Astrachan, Rawles' Jannet, St. Lawrence, Mahnda and 
Wealthy. The usual garden vegetables find here a congenial climate, 
and are cultivated at a good profit. The needs of a general seed 
store for merchandise of this class, has been before alluded to. The 
interest could be better developed by this means. 


I— < 








The tanning business of Watertown and vicinity is of an old date, 
extending far back among the oldest trades in existence here. The 
first tannery erected in Watertown on an extensive scale, was built 
by Jason Fairbanks in 1823, and since that date the interest has 
been an important one to Watertown as well as to this section of the 
State. Fairbanks' tan yard was upon the site now occupied by S. 
Pool's residence en State street. The second tannery built by this 
industrious and enterprising pioneer, was located near Factory Square 
and continued to do a large business under various managements, 
until destroyed by fire in 1874. Messrs. Holt and Beecher carried 
on the tanning business for many years on Beebee's Island near the 
smaller bridge. This tannery was twice destroyed by fire. In 1844 
the extensive tannery now occupied and conducted by Farwell, 
Hall & Co., located at the lower dam, was built by Messrs. Fisk & 
Bates. A good business has been carried on here since that year, 
and much profit has followed the enterprise. 

In 1837 Messrs. Milton Clark & George Burr estabHshed a tan- 
nery between Beebee's Island and Factory Square, which was 
devoted principally to the sheep skin and morocco line. This tan- 
nery has been in continuous operation and has proved valuable 
property. It is now conducted by Farwell, Hall & Co. 

The present tanning business of George Parker & Son was lounded 
in 1854 and was run for nearly twenty years by B. F. Hotchkin & 
Son. The tannery is located on Fairbanks street near Factory 

The last tannery built in Watertown was put up in 1868, upon the 
north side of the river on Sewall's Island, near the upper dam, by 
Messrs. Millington & Burt, and the tanning of hides and skins was 
conducted here for many years. It is now operated by Messrs. 
Gates & Gillett, both practical men, in wool pulling and sheep skin 
tanning. This tannery is of brick and is considered by the trade as 
a model of convenience. 

The tanning interest of this county is extensive, and extends into 
the neighboring counties of Lewis, Oswego and St. Lawrence. We 
give below a record showing the tanneries in Jefferson county with 


such facts and statistics respecting each one, as may interest inquir- 
ers in this direction. 


Farvvell, Hall <S: Co., Watertown, in their two tanneries, tan 3,000 
hides and 4,000 skins annually, rough and finished. Sales princi- 
pally in northern New York, Vermont and Boston. The tanneries 
run to their full capacity. 

George Parker & Son, Watertown, tan 500 hides and 6,000 skins 
annually, rough and finished, and sell principally in northern New 
York and Boston. The capacity of the tannery is 800 hides and 
10,000 skins. The cost of bark in Watertown is $6.50 per cord. 

G. N. Crosby, Antwerp, tans 800 hides and 3,000 skins annu- 
ally, sold in the rough in Boston. Capacity, 1,500 hides and 8,000 
skins. Cost of bark, $5. 

Weaver (S: Son, Adams, tan 200 hides annually, finished as har- 
ness and upper. Runs to full capacity. Cost of bark, $6. Sold in 
Boston and home markets. 

J. S. Lewis, Adams, does a business of like extent. 

Baldwin & Douglass, Mannsville, tan 800. hides and 4,000 skins, 
in rough, and sell in Boston. Capacity 1,500 hides and 15,000 
skins. Cost of bark, $6. 

Tuttle cV' Hoicomb, Carthage, tan 2,000 hides and 10,000 skins, 
finishing in the rough and selling in Boston and home markets . 
Capacity 2,000 hides, 15,000 skins. Cost. of bark I5. 

V. (S: J. Cooper, Theresa, tan 1,000 hides and 8,000 skins, finish- 
ing in the rough and selHng in Boston and home markets. Capaci- 
ty 1,000 hides and 10,000 skins. Cost of bark $5. 

H. E. Farnham, Philadelphia, tans by the pound for other parties. 
Capacity 5,000 skins. Cost of bark $5. 

Hiram Herring, Rodman, tans 500 hides and 10,000 skins, fin- 
ishing in the rough and selling in Boston. Capacity 500 hides, 15,- 
000 skins. Cost of bark $5. 

Gates cs: Gillett's tannery, Watertown has a capacity for tanning 
1,200 hides and 10,000 skins annually. Cost of bark $6.50. 


C. C. Vebber, Felts Mills, Thos. E. Proctor, Natural Bridge ; E. 
Brannan and Hoyt and Dickerman, Carthage have sole leather tan- 


neries, using foreign hides, and sales are made in New York and 
Boston. Cost of bark $5. 

In conclusion it may be said that Watertown being a central point 
in the localities described offers excellent inducements as a place for 
the successful carrying on of the industry mentioned. The reciproci- 
ty treaty with Canada places tanners' stock, hides and skins on the 
free list, thereby affording the tanner a convenient and well supplied 
market for purchasing his necessary stock. 



Reference has already been made m this book ( pages 17 and 18 ) 
to the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods in Watertown in the 
early days of its history. It was one of the first and most miportant 
of the industries which attracted the attention, and inspired the 
efforts of capitalists of that period, and was continued with much 
profit for a long series of years, fire alone at last causing what was 
hoped to be only a temporary suspension of the business. 


The large cotton factory erected on the river at Factory Square in 
1814, by a company formed December 28, 18 13 (not 1818, as the 
types have it on page 17), stood until April 28, 1869, a period of 
over half a century, when it was destroyed by fire. During this time 
it was never idle. Owing to the war with Great Britain which cut 
off importations of cotton goods, the factory, during the first years of 
its history enjoyed a high degree of prosperity. The building was, 
with the exception of the ship house at Sackets Harbor, the largest 
in the county. The machinery with which it was stocked was brought 
from Hudson N. Y. Considering the early period and the disad- 
vantages under which every branch of trade in this section then 
labored, from its distance from tide water, the establishment of this 


institution was justly considered a great stroke of enterprise. The 
first company conducted the business five years after which it was 
under the charge of M. \V. Gilbert and John Sigourney. The war 
had closed and with its close there came a lively importation of cot- 
ton goods from England which made it more difficult to realize 
large profits on the goods manufactured here, but the administration 
of these two gentlemen was remarked for economy and care and the 
factory was considered one of the sound institutions of Watertown. 
In 1830, H. D. Sewall succeeded Gilbert and Sigourney, and con- 
tinued the business for four years, when a new company was organ- 
ized, as stated, including Thomas Baker as one of its trustees. Mr. 
Baker is the only living representative of that organization, and his 
gray hairs may be seen in our Aldermanic Council, still covering a 
young and clear head. This company conducted the affairs of the 
manufactory until 1848 in a manner which secured for its mana- 
gers the good will and the esteem of the community. It was the 
leading interest then in this section and was regarded as a public 
benefit in many senses. It was a matter of congratulation among 
the people, that a business could be conducted so safely so economi- 
cally and yet so profitably. It was afterwards a matter of sincere 
regret when it passed into other hands, although the operations of 
the mill were fairly profitable until its destruction in 1869. 

During the life of the institution Factory Square was the liveliest 
point in the city. It may be a matter of interest to state that the 
bell in the factory was the first one brought into the place. It was 
one of the trophies captured by General Pike in 1813 at the battle 
of Toronto, Ont., and was formerly in use on a British man-of-war. 


The last woolen factory in the city stood at the upper dam noted 
on the map, on the south side of the river. The business was estab- 
lished here and the factory built by a company organized in 1835, 
Mr. H. D. Sewall being the principal actor. In 1842 the company 
was changed, and after a few years the building was rented to Elting 
King & Co., who conducted it in 1859. At this time 150 hands 
were employed and an extensive and profitable business was carried 
on. May 6, 1859 the works were entirely destroyed by fire, attended 
by a great loss of property and some loss of life. 



The advantages which may be considered, widi a view of the 
revival of the manufacture of cotton in this city are briefly as follows : 

1. The value and utility of the water power at this point. Noth- 
ing superior in this direction can be offered anywhere. We have 
already given thiS subject prominence on preceding pages. 

2. The facility ot obtaining building materials for the erection of 
new buildings. Lumber of the finest quality, brick, lime and stone 
can be obtained readily and cheaply here. No point excels Water- 
town in this particular, all these materials being readily obtainable 
in its immediate vicinity. 

3. The population of the city is amply sufficient to supply opera- 

4. The transportation of raw cotton from Memphis and other 
cotton shipping points, to Watertown via. Chicago and the great 
lakes, secures to Watertown a cheaper rate of freight than can be 
given eastern cities. Cotton can be landed cheaper in Watertown 
than it can be in New York city, using the route named. This is 
a most important consideration and one which largely affects profits. 

The same arguments may be urged in favor of the establishment 
here of woolen factories with the additional advantage offered by the 
peculiar nature of the water of the river which makes it unsurpassed 
for cleansing woolen goods. This is the decision of men who have 
been engaged in this branch of industry for many years, and who 
have given the subject careful thought and the chemical character 
of the water attentive study. The rocky bed of the river over which 
it flows for so many miles imbues it with cleansing properties which 
are unexcelled anywhere in the United States. 

The same arguments which induced the first establishment of cot- 
ton and woolen manufactories in Watertown still hold good. Many 
of the finest points in the city offer special inducements to manufac- 
turers in this branch, and we feel confident that attention and 
inquiry, and if practicable, personal observation will convince even 
the most critical, that the claims of our river and of our city for favor 
in the eyes of enterprising capitalists and manufacturers of these 
specialties are well founded. 

There is a sentiment already prevailing in Watertown in favor of 
the re-establishment here of cotton and woolen manufactories. In 


1875 a commodious building on the south side of the river near the 
upper dam, was put in order and stocked with machinery by A. D. 
Remington, Avho already conducts one of our largest paper mills, for 
the manufacture of cotton yarn. It was projected on a small scale, 
but additions have been made and more will be. The factory now 
employs 20 hands and turns out 800 pounds of cotton yarn per day, 
of excellent quality and at a fair profit. 

The development of an interest in the manufacture of woolen 
goods is regarded bv this Association as one of great importance 
and a special committee has been appointed to collect all informa- 
tion on the subject that may interest inquirers in this direction, and 
to take all possible means of properly presenting it to the public — 
answer questions and promote the object set forth. The Committee 
consist of Charles W. Sloat, D. Van Ostrand and John C. Streeter. 



Among the rare prizes awarded in the games which closed the 
funeral obsequies of Patroclus, Homer enumerates slender-waisted 
women and hoary iron. 

No longer rare iron still remains one of man's most precious pos- 
sessions. So widely distributed through nature it is difficult to con- 
ceive the time when its use was not, as to-day, universal, yet 
archaeologists trace the culture of the race through two long ages in 
which, successively, implements of stone and bronze were used before 
this wonderful ductile and tenacious metal received due cognizance. 

According to the estimate of Buckland, iron constitutes two per 
cent, of the mineral crust of the earth. All soils, all plants contain 
it, and it is a necessary element of the blood. It forms the coloring^ 
matter of nearly all the rocks and precious stones, the brownish- 
yellows, the yellow-browns, the green, brownish-green, olive-green, 
the red all being due to its presence. 

While it is thus so universally distributed, through the wise manip- 
ulations of Nature vast and seemingly inexhaustible beds have been 
gathered together, subject to the industry of man. 


Among the many problems which modern Geologists are attempt- 
ing to solve, is the process through which these ore beds are thus 
segregated. Many of these beds are of great depth and cover large 
areas of territory. The old theory of igneous origin, of the thrust- 
ing up of immense masses of iron by volcanic action, fails to account 
for the present condition of rocks in which these ores are imbedded. 
Prof. Sterry Hunt says : " I can hardly conceive of an accumula- 
tion of iron, copper, lead or gold in the production of which animal 
or vegetable life has not been directly necessary." 

Wherever iron is diffused in the rocks it exists chielly in combina- 
tion with oxygen, the two forming two principal compounds ; the 
first a protoxide soluble in water containing carbonic or other soluble 
acids, the second a peroxide msolublein the same Hquid. When a 
ditch is dug in moist soil, covered with a decaying vegetation, the 
stagnant water which collects at the bottom soon becomes coated 
with a shining, iridescent scum which is a com})ound of the peroxide 
of iron. Exposed to the air it absorbs oxygen and the peroxide is 
formed which separates as a film on the surface of the water and 
finally sinks to the bottom as a reddish ochre and under different con- 
ditions becomes aggregated as a massive iron ore. A process iden- 
tical in kind with this has been at work at the earth's surface ever 
since there were decaying organic matters, dissolving the iron from 
the porous rocks, clays and sands and gathering it together in beds of 
iron-ore or iron-ochre.* 


These facts, indicate that in the Primordial Era a rank vegetation 
must have had existence, as the iron ore beds of this Era far exceed 
in thickness those of later ages. It is only within the last ten years 
that Geologists have been willing to admit of any organic life exist- 
ing before the Primary or Silurian Era. The discovery by Profes- 
sor Dawson of a rhizopod in the Lauren tian period, together with 
layers of graphite, which is carbon, one of the constituents of wood 
or animal matter, have pushed back through immense lapses of time 
the dawn of life. Of course this length of time can only be guessed 
at. Professor Helmholtz has calculated from the rate of cooling 
lavas that the earth in passing from 2,000° to 200 °F., must have 
taken three hundred and fifty millions of years. Other writers claim 

"Hunt's Claemical and Geological Essays. 


a period four times this. Haeckel states that the Primordial Era 
alone occupied as much time as it has taken to build all the succes- 
sive stratas of the earth. 

In this light the x\ntwerp ore mines receive an archaeological as 
well as an economic interest, since they are located in the Lauren- 
tian period. These mines lie beneath the Potsdam sandstone in 
beds of metamorphic rock of gneiss, hornblende, hypersthene and 
syenite. From the presence of rensselaerite, serpentine, the rounded 
crystals of quartz and apatite, these rocks have probably experi- 
enced more than one reformation since they were first deposited. 
When the remoteness of the Primordial era and the chemical powers 
of water charged with heat and therefore with alkalies and silica 
are considered, such changes are not a source of wonder.* 

The specular oxides of iron — hematites — of which these beds are 
composed, are among the most valuable mineral deposits of the 
world. Mines of gold and silver have for a short time produced a 
greater profit, but none of these have afforded such constant and 
long-continued prosperity, and no other metal is so enhanced in price 
by the valuable qualities imparted to it by labor. A writer in Apple- 
ton's Cyclopaedia tells us that a bar of iron worth $5, when made 
into horse-shoes is worth $10.50, in the form of needles $55, in pen- 
knife blades $3,285, in shirt buttons $29,480, in balance springs of 
watches $250,000. 


With the exception of a few beds of limonite and of magnetic 
oxide, the iron mines of Jefferson county are of the red hematite 
order. This name is derived from the Greek word Aniatitas, blood- 
stone. The color is sometimes dark steel-gray or iron-black, but 
even then, in very thin particles by transmitted light showing a light 
blood red. Besides the compact varieties it is found columnar, gran- 
ular, botryoidal and stalactitic in shape. It has a metallic lustre, is 
opaque, fractures uneven, and is some times attractable by the mag- 
net. The greater portion of all the iron made in the world is from 
hematite ores. They work easily in blast furnaces, produce a good 
yield, and make excellent qualities of iron whether for foundry or 
forge purposes. Being often deficient in the silicious matters requir- 

*Dana's Manual, p. 156. 


ed to make a glassy cinder, the magnetic oxides, which have com- 
monly more or less quartz intermixed, are advantageously employed 
with the hematites in the proportion of one third or one fourth of the 
whole charge of ore. The hematites are extracted in the form of 
clear coarse lumps, and in fine ore which is mixed with the associat- 
ed clay and other foreign matters.* 

When pure the hematites consist of iron 59, oxygen 26.3, water 
14.7. An analysis of the Kearney ore bed, which is but a continua- 
tion of the Sterling in this County, made by Dr. Lewis C. Beck, re- 
sulted as follows: Peroxide of iron 96.52, silica, alumnia, &:c., 3.48. 

From a communication kindly furnished us by Mr. D. Minthorn, 
of this city, we copy the following interesting statement : — "The out- 
cropping of iron ore nearest VVatertown is the well known Shurtliff 
mines in the town of Philadelphia, now extensively worked by Mr. 
Gere of Geddes, and Mr. Mills of Carthage, both running hot blast 
furnaces. This mine is situated on the Utica and Black River 
Rail Road. 

"From the peculiar formation of contiguous ore beds, we evident- 
ly have three extensive ranges of specular ore, or red oxide deposits. 
The more northerly range begins at the Shurtliff mines, outcropping 
on the Wicks farm, continuing in a north easterly direction, is seen 
at Wegatchie, comes out boldly at Little Bow Corners, and extends 
to the vicinity of Cooper's Falls. The middle lobe includes the 
Dixon, Sterling, Keene's, Caledonia, Parish and Kearney, and ex- 
tends to the north east to the town of Canton ; while the southerly 
ranges in the same direction from Little York in Fowler to the 
Grasse River. 

"A few miles south east ot this range commences the vast depos- 
its of black oxide or magnetic iron ore, taking in both the northern 
and southern slopes of the wilderness known as John Brown's Tract. 
From the summit level near Cranberry Lake it appears in high hills 
and mountains, and about half way down the northern slope. It 
has the same appearence at Clifton, rising above the valley some 
one hundred and fifty feet, presenting an out-crop of about eighty 
by two hundred yards. 

"An analysis ot this ore by Dr. Torrey gave 67 per centum of 
metallic iron. Another analysis from ten different openings gave an 

♦Appleton's Cyclopsedia. 


average of 53 per cent. The red oxide or specular ore yields an 
average fully equalling the above analysis. The theories of science 
and the facts of practical experience have determined that the best 
iron is made by 'mixing magnetic with specular ores. Most of the 
red oxides are now shipped to distant furnaces for the above pur- 
pose, it having been discovered that at a red heat the one gains 
what the other loses in magnetism. 

"While the Lake Champlain and the Lake Superior ores have 
been interchanged from Cleveland, Ohio, to Boston, Mass., forming 
a large item in our commercial statistics of iron, here nature has 
placed, in inexhaustible quantities, and but few miles apart, not alone 
the different ores whose mixture produces the finest irons, but im- 
mense beds of the best alkaline fluxes known. A third factor, en- 
tering into the manufacture of iron, is fuel. The high price of labor 
precludes the use of charcoal, but in the immediate region of these 
ore beds are vast fields of peat. Up to the present time this re- 
source has been entirely overlooked. Successfully and economical- 
ly used to manufacture iron in France, Belgium and Wales, no no- 
tice of its value or investigation of its merits for this purpose, seems 
to have been put to practical test by the capitalists of this country. 
A charcoal from peat can be produced for nearly one half the cost 
of wood charcoal, and if made in connection with a blast furnace, 
all the bituminous matter can be used in roasting the ore, which 
would cause a still further reduction in the price of the charcoal." 


As early as 18 12 specular iron ore had been wrought in Rossie, 
but it was not until 1836 that the Sterhng mine, three miles north of 
Antwerp village was discovered. This mine is pronounced by Dr. 
Beck, in the Mineralogy of the State, as being the most valuable of 
any in New York. It is however but one of a series of mines, 
deposited in the same Geological era and contiguous to each other. 
This series commences in St. Lawrence county with the Caledonia 
which has been worked about sixty years. Passing into Jefferson 
county we have the Keene, Sterling and Dixon, which have been 
worked with more or less activity for fifty-five, forty and thirty 
years, in the respective order they are named. Though all these 
mines are in the same range, they are not seemingly connected by 
veins, but lie ni immense and inexhaustible pockets. The ores of 

WATER TOWN, N. Y. ' 47 

these beds are principally of the compact variety, sometimes in crys- 
talline plates with a high metallic lustre. Dodechahedral crystals of 
quartz abound in the ore, and in the sandstone which accompanies 
it. The rare cocoxenite in radiated tufts of )'ellow and brownish 
yellow color is frequently found in crevices of the ore, and carbonate 
of iron, in well defined crystals abounds. Beautiful capillary crystals 
of the sulphuret of nickel, in connection with spathic iron also occur. 


Notwithstanding frequent application to parties who were sup- 
posed to possess the information sought, we have been unable to 
obtain statistics regarding the annual amount of ores raised from the 
different mines. Through the courtesy of Col. Hiram B. Keene of 
Keene's Station, and Mr. Charles R. Westbrook, Superintendent of 
the Keene ore bed, we present the amount of ore, in tons, sold dur- 
ing the last five years: — 1872, 42,000 — 1873, 40,000 — 1874, 24,000 
— 1S75, t8,ooo. In 1875 one hundred and twenty men were 
employed in the Keene alone. The present year the force is not so 
heavy. The above figures are in no way an indication of the capa- 
bilities of this mine, but simply show the condition of the markets. 
The Keene has all the appliances for exceeding in tons the amount 
raised in its busiest years, and only waits for better days to dawn 
upon the iron interests of the country. 

So far the Keene has been excavated to the depth of about one 
hundred and twenty feet. Its ores yield from fifty to fifty-five per 
cent, of metallic iron, and are shipped to Hudson River, Buffalo, 
Rochester -ind Cleveland. 


Of these mines our information is simply conjectural, though from 
the number of men employed, the yield during 1875 was very much 
less than that of the Keene. As these mines are contiguous and, in 
chemical analysis, identical with the Keene, the same truths apply 
to them as to the former. The enlarged demand for ore will bring 
them into increased activity. Of the 


which constitute one series of deposits, the former alone is worked. 
The bed at present is controlled by the Geddes Iron Company of 
which A. J. Belden, of Geddes, N. Y., is President. The ores 


mined are shipped to this point, and also to supply the furnace at 
Carthage. This furnace has just closed a successful run of over five 
months in which about 15,000 tons of iron were made. When in 
full running order ten tons per day can be turned out at this furnace. 


The limonites occur in secondary and more recent deposits, and 
are now in course of modern formation throughout our low marshy 
lands. They are in all cases the result of alteration in other ores 
through exposure to moisture, air, and carbonic or organic acids, and 
are borne by streams from hills and elevated places into low damp 
grounds or swamps. In compact forms the bog ores occur in stal- 
actites as well as in tube rose and other concretionary forms, fre- 
quently making beds in the rocks which contain the minerals that 
have been altered into them. 

In moist places where a sluggish streamlet flows into a marsh or 
pool, a rust-yellow or brownish-yellow deposit often covers the bot- 
tom, and an iridescent film the surface of the water. The deposit is 
a growing bed of marsh ore. The iron is transported in solution as 
a protoxid carbonate in carbonated waters, a sulphate, or as a salt of 
an organic acid. Lumps of it v/eighing five hundred pounds have 
sometimes been found, but it usually occurs in small irregular shaped 
pieces, or in the form of shot.* In deposits among vegetable refuse 
the oxide of iron takes the place of wood fibres, retaining in its more 
solid material the exact form of the branches of trees, of the small 
twigs, and even of the leaves with their delicate reticulations. Some- 
times when a mine has been exhausted, by filling the space with loose 
earth, leaves and bushes, a new bed has been formed in from seven 
to ten years. 

As some difference of opinion among Geologists is held regarding 
the origin of these beds, we extract the following from the eleventh 
edition of Lyell's Principals of Geology : — " At the bottom of the 
peat-mosses there is sometimes found a cake, or ' pan,' as it is 
termed, of oxide of iron, and the frequency of bog iron ore is familiar 
to the mineralogist. The oak, which is often dyed black in peat, 
owes its color to the same metal. From what source the iron is 
derived has often been a subject of discussion, until the discoveries 
of Ehrenbergh seem at length to have removed the difficulty. He 

*Dana's Mineralogy. 






had observed, in the marshes about Bedin, a substance of a deep 
ochre yellow passing into red, which covered the bottom of ditches, 
and which, where it had become dry after the evaporation of the 
water, appeared exactly like oxide of iron. But under the micro- 
scope it was found to consist of slender articulated threads or plates, 
partly silicious and partly ferruginous, of a plant of simple structure, 
GalUonella ferrugmea of the family called Diatomaceae. There can 
be little doubt, therefore that the bog iron ore consists of an aggre- 
gate of millions of these organic bodies invisible to the naked eye." 

The beds of bog ore in this county are of secondary importance 
compared with those of the red oxide. Near OxBow, in the town 
of Antwerp, as also near Carthage, in the town of Wilna, they are 
found ; and, mixed with the red hematites, in former years have 
been somewhat worked. 

During the year 1873, the R. W. & O. Railroad shipped 81,509 
net tons of iron ore, produced by the various mines on the line of 
this road. 



The admirable railroad facilities possessed by Watertown, are die 
outgrowth of a spirit of enterprise which began early to manifest 
itself, and which permitted no cessation of earnest work and endeavor 
until the ultimate objects were accomplished. The first railroad in 
the country, ( from Albany to Schenectady ), \vas hardly in full 
operation, before the people of Jefferson county caught the inspira- 
tion, and the project of securing an easier and more speedy access 
to tide water markets was most earnestly discussed. 


April 17, 1832, the Legislature passed an act incorporating the 
Wate?iow/i and Rome Railroad, authorizing the construction of a 
railroad from Rome to Watertown, and thence to the river St. Law- 
rence or Lake Ontario, or both, with a capital of $1,000,000. The 
commissioners named in the first act for Jefferson county were 
Henry H. Cofifeen, Edmund Kirby, Orville Hungerford and Wil- 
liam Smith. No active work was done under this act, and it was 
revived May 10, 1836. George C. Sherman was added to the com- 
mission, but again nothing definite was accomplished. May 6, 
1837, the act was revived and amended, and Clarke Rice was added 
to the list of commissioners. May 17, 1845 the act was extended — 
and $25,000 were required to be expended within two years, and the 
road to be finished in four years. On the 28th of April, 1847, the 
former time was extended one, and the latter two years. The capi- 
tal was increased to $1,500,000. 

During this time meetings were held at many points along the 
proposed line of the road, and the public generally aroused to the 
importance of its construction. A sufficient sum having been sub- 
scribed to save the charter, a meeting of the stockholders was held 
at the Court House in Watertown March 21, 1848, and the follow- 
ing resolution, amcng others, was adopted : 

" Resolved, That the directors proceed without delay to the 
speedy construction of the road * * * from Rome to Cape Vin- 

April 24, 1848, Isaac W. Crane of Troy was employed to re-sur- 
vey the route. The summit was found to be only 190 feet above 
Rome-;— the estimated cost ot superstruction was $6,042.40 per mile. 

WATER TO M^N, N. Y. 51 

and the total of grading, bridging and fencing, $442,940.62; and 
the entire cost of the road including engines, cars, depots, land dam- 
ages etc., was estimated at $1,250,620. More credit is due the 
original movers in this work than they ever received, for the untir- 
ing energy displayed against all opposition in carrying the project 
to a successful issue. 

In November 1848, actual work was begun upon the road at 
Rome, and on Sept. 5, i85i,at 11 o'clock p. m., the first engine 
reached Watertown amid the cheers and exultations of the multi- 
tude which had assembled to witness the advent in their midst of 
the mighty agent which was destined to revolutionize, in so great a 
degree, the future interests of the village and section. On the 24th 
of the same month, the completion of the road was formally cele- 
brated at Watertown by appropriate festivities, which evinced the 
joy and cordiality with which the citizens of the county welcomed 
the coming of the iron horse, and the full realization of this long de- 
layed and long desired improvement. 


In April, 1852, the railroad was completed from Watertown to 
Cape Vincent, twenty-five miles distant. The total length of the 
completed line was 971^ miles, and its total cost $1,957,992. The 
road was constructed by Phelps, Barnes and Mattoon of Springfield, 

On the 8th of January, 1852, a company was organized to con- 
struct a railroad from Watertown to North Potsdam (Potsdam 
Junction) a point on the (now) Vermont Central Railroad, extend- 
ing east from Ogdensburg to Rouses Point. This road, 76 miles in 
length, was completed in 1854 and until i860 was known as the 
Potsdam and Watertown railroad. In the latter year it came into 
the permanent possession of the Watertow^n and Rome Railroad Co. 
The latter company laid a track from DeKalb Junction, a point on 
the P. & W. R. R., to Ogdensburg, 19 miles distant in 1861-2, and 
the name of the consolidated road was soon afterward changed, by 
act of Legislature, to the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Rail- 
road Co. 

In 1866, the Oswego and Rome Railroad, extending from Oswe- 
go eastward 29 miles to Richland, a point on the R. W. & O. R. 
K., was completed and leased at once to the last named road. 


The Syracuse Northern Railroad, extending north from Syracuse 
45 miles to Sandy Creek Junction, a point on the R. W. & O. R. R. , 
was completed in 1870, and in 1875 was consolidated with the main 
line and is now under its control. 

The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad extending west from Oswego 
to Charlotte (Rochester's port of entry) and now (1876) rapidly ap- 
proaching completion to its western terminus at Lewiston on the 
Niagara river (150 miles) was merged into the R. W. &l O. R. R. 
in January 1875, and is now controlled and operated by it. 

THE R. W. & O. R. R. 

It will thus be seen that the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg 
Railroad Co. has now under its control and operates 417 miles of 
railroad, the combination constituting one of the three most import- 
ant lines of travel and traffic in the State and one of great value to 
the people of the northern and western counties. It taps the great 
mining regions of this section, which it has aided very materially in 
developing ; traverses one of the finest agricultural portions of the 
State, accommodates extensive lumber districts, draws largely from 
Canad a on the north, and reaches into the coal regions of Pennsyl- 
vania. The country through which it passes is thickly settled and 
prosperous. It serves directly the cities of Watertown, Rome, Og- 
densburg, Syracuse and Oswego, and a score of thriving villages 
along its whole line. Since its beginning it has paid in dividends 
$2, 829,304.55, the first being paid in 1852. The capital stock of 
the company is $3,147,500. The annual report made to the State 
Engineer for 1875 gives the tonnage during the year as follows : 

Products of the forest 77^734 tons. 

" " animals 18,780 " 

Vegetable food 74,640 " 

Other Agricultural Products 1 1,796 " 

Manufacturers 47-927 " 

Mechandise 30,364 " 

Other Articles 115,392 " 

Total 2>1^,^2>3 " 

Of this total there were 45,989 tons of lumber, 7,608 tons of 
cheese, and 4,169 tons of butter. In 1873 there were 81,509 tons 
of iron ore transported. The number of passengers carried in 1875 
was 564,200. 
















This excellent showing is in the face of a general depression in 
trade of all kinds which prevailed in that year. Previous and future 
figures will show a still better condition of its business. The com- 
pany builds its own cars, and the road is one of the most perfectly 
equipped in the country, both as to its facility for handling freight, 
and the superior quality of passenger cars, giving to the travelling 
public benefits and luxuries not found elsewhere. It maintains a 
line of sleeping cars to New York at all times, and the finest draw- 
ing room cars are put on the line during the summer season. 

The road is of immense advantage to Watertown, and the Com- 
pany keeps the interests of the city well protected so far as in its 
power. It is especially zealous in its favor to the manufacturing 
interests of this section and displays a liberal spirit in its action. 


During the summer season the road maintains a fine of steamers 
from Cape Vincent down the River St. Lawrence, among the Thou- 
sand Islands to Clayton, Fisher's Landing, and Alexandria Bay. 
The summer travel in this direction is becoming extensive and these 
points are popular summer resorts. 


The First Superintendent was Orville Hungerford who died before 
the completion of the road. Mr. H. was also the first President. 
Following him as Superintendents were Robert Doxtater, Job Colla- 
mer, Carlos Button, Addison Day, Charles C. Case and J. W. 
Moak, the present officer. He is one of the most thorough railroad 
men in the country, and his administration since 1869 has given per- 
fect satisfaction to all interested — company, employees and people. 
His popularity as a railroad Superintendent is well known. Hon. 
Wm. C. Pierrepont one of the original workers for the project 
was President of the road after Mr. Hungerford's death until 187 1 
when he withdrew and Marcellus Massey of New York, formerly an 
enterprising citizen of Watertown, was chosen. His ability and 
efficiency are plainly discernible in his excellent management of the 
road and its extended combinations. 

Other officers are as follows : — T. H. Camp, Vice-President; J. A. 
Lawyer, Treasurer ; H. T. Frary, General Ticket Agent; E. M. 
Moore, Assistant Superintendent and General Freight Agent, all of 
Watertown. The directors are Marcellus Massey, Moses Taylor, 


Samuel Sloan, C. Zabriskie, Wm. E. Dodge, John T. Denny, all of 
New York, G. Colby, J. S. Farlow, of Boston, T. H. Camp, Water- 
town, S. D. Hungerford, Adams, Wm. C. Pierrepont, Pierrepont 
Manor, Wm. M. White, Canaseraga, Theo. Irwin, Oswego. The 
general offices are located at Watertown, where the road also has 
extensive workshops, giving employment to over loo men. The 
road gives employment, on its whole line, to about 1,200 men. 

The excellent management of the road is displayed in the fact 
that there never has been a fatal accident upon the line through any 
carelessness of officers or employees. 

The equipment of the road consists of 55 locomotives, 50 passen- 
ger coaches, 24 baggage and express, 1,195 freight cars of all kinds. 


The Rome Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad, as now operated, 
with all its combinations, offers advantages and facilities for ship- 
pers which are unsurpassed. It reaches the New York Central 
Railroad at two important points, Rome and Syracuse. At the 
former city extensive docks have been constructed on the Erie 
Canal. It has two termini on the St. Lawrence river, Cape A^incent 
and Ogdensburg, at both of which points it owns superior and 
well arranged docks and has close ferry connections with Kingston 
and Prescott. The former is the southern terminus of the Kingston 
and Pembroke railroad, which, when completed, will bring from one 
of the finest lumber regions of the continent the production of that 
section. Prescott is the southern terminus of the St. Lawrence and 
Ottawa R. R. from which vast quantities of freight are received. It 
touches three important points on Lake Ontario, viz : — The city of 
Oswego, noted for its flourishing grain trade, Charlotte, near Roch- 
ester, and Lewiston on the Niagara river. At Oswego the road 
owns valuable dock privileges. Here is also a bridge across the 
Oswego river, completed April 6, 1876. The completion of this 
bridge with the opening of the road to Suspension Bridge, June 12, 
1876, and the completion of the few remaining miles of the Portland 
and Ogdensburg railroad, will open a direct line from Portland to San 
Francisco, accommodating with immense advantages a large and 
productive territory in the northern part of the Union heretofore un- 
supplied and not wholly developed. The future of this section glows 
with brilliant prospects in view of all these considerations, and 
Watertown must reap her share of the benefits to be received. 



The opening of this road to Watertown in 1873, gave the city an 
additional outlet to the east, which added the advantage of compe- 
tition to our already extensive railroad facilities. The original com- 
pany was formed in 1853, with a capital of $1,000,000, and the 
construction of the road began in June, 1853, at Utica. It was 
completed to Boonville, Oneida county, 35 miles, in 1855. The 
original plan ivas to construct a railroad to Clayton, Morristown and 
Ogdensburg, on the St. Lawrence river, but this was not immediately 
carried out. In 1868 the line was completed and put in operation 
from Boonville to Lowville, Lewis county, 24 miles. In 1872 the 
line was extended to Carthage, 16 miles. 

While the last division was being constructed, a company was 
organized at Watertown, under the title of the Carthage, Watertown 
and Sackets Harbor Railroad, and a road constructed in 1872 from 
Watertown to Carthage, 18 miles, which was completed about the 
time the U. & B. R. R. Co, completed its track to the same point. 
Upon the completion of the road from Watertown to Carthage, it 
was leased to the U. & B. R. R. Co. In 1873 the latter road ex- 
tended its track to Clayton (34 miles from, Carthage) and in 1874 
the C. W. & S. H. R. R. Co. completed a road from Watertown to 
Sackets Harbor, 12 miles, which was in the same year leased to the 
main line. In 1875 a track was laid from Theresa Junction (between 
Carthage and Clayton) to Morristown, 31 miles, opposite Brockville, 
Ontario. The total length of the road, including its branches, is 
169 miles. It passes near the Shurtlifif iron ore bed, and through a 
thickly settled and prosperous section. In 1875 its tonnage was as 

Products of Forest 14,802 Tons. 

Animals 9,533 " 

Vegetable Food iIj939 " 

Other agricultural products - 1 1,840 " 

Manufactures _ 22,216 " 

Merchandise . . . _ - 1 2,288 " 

Other articles 22,456 " 

Total 105,074 Tons. 


This showing compares very favorably with results of former 
years, although lessened by the general depression felt in trade every- 
where. The number of passengers carried in 1875 was 245,847. 


The management of the road is economical and safe, and good 
dividends are regularly paid. The present officers of the road are as 
follows :— Dewitt C. West, of Lowville, President; John Thorn, Vice- 
President ; Isaac Maynard, Treasurer; W. E. Hopkins, Secretary; 
J. F. Maynard, General Superintendent; Theodore Butterfield, 
General Ticket Agent; Charles Hackett, General Freight Agent. 
The offices of the company are located at Utica, Mr. West, its Pres- 
ident, is one of the most stiring and energetic men connected with 
it, and his administration is satisfactory to all concerned. Mr. Mayn- 
ard, although the youngest railroad Superintendent in the country, 
displays qualities which eminently fit him for the position and make 
him popular wherever known. The directors of the road are as fol- 
lows : — James Sayre, T. S. Faxton, E. A. Graham, I. Maynard, R . 
Wheeler, John Thorn, William J. Bacon, L. Lawrence, A. J. Wil- 
liams, A. G. Brower, all of Utica, D. C. West, Lowville, D. B. 
Goodwin, Waterville, and R. L. Kennedy, New York. 


At Utica it connects with the New York Central railroad, the 
Midland railroad, Utica, Clinton and Binghamton railroad, and the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, giving direct communication 
with the coal fields of Pennsylvania. Its two termini on the St. 
Lawrence river, Clayton and Morristown, give it facilities for accom- 
modating a large Canadian trade from Gananoque and Brockville. 
These points are located on the Grand Trunk railway of Canada, 
and Brockville is the terminus of the Brockville and Ottawa Rail- 
road and also of the Rideau Canal, both extending through exten- 
sive lumber districts. At Sackets Harbor, on Lake Ontario, the 
road possesses advantages for the transhipment of grain and lumber 
from the west. At all the northern termini it has excellent shipping 
advantages. At Carthage the Black River Canal ends, extending 
thither from Utica. 

Map of Watertowu in 1804. 


Engraved from the original Map, dranni by Dyer Huntington, 
and now owned by E. S. Afassty, Esq., of Watertowu. 

1. House built by Judge Coffeen. I 

2. House occupied by Judge Coffeen. 
J. " " Isaiah Massev. 
4. Aaron Keyes' dwelling-house. 

5- " " cooper-shop. 

6. Israel Thornton's log-cabin. 

7. Jonathan Cowan's log-cabin. 

8. A frame, roof covered, designed for a store by 

Amasa Fox. 

9. A frame, rough boarded, and occupied by 

Aaron Bacon. 

10. Hart Massey's frame-house. 

11. Log-house and hat-shop of P. Wells. 
14. Barn of H. Massey. 
I J. Log-house occupied by Medad Canfield. 

14. Log-house occupied by Joel Goodale. 

15. Barn. 

16. Barn. 

17. Frame of the old White Tavern. 

18. Jonathan Cowan's saw-mill. 

ig. Foundations of a house by I. Walt. 

zo. Isaac Cutter's distillery. 

21. H. Masjey's wood-shed, used by N. Hz "ens. 

21. Spring. 

2J. School-house — finished in 1805. 

A. Road to Adams. 

B. *' " Brownville. 
C- " " Champion. 
S.H. " '* Sacket's Harbor. 



Its appearance in 1S04 — The Village Government — Fire and Pluck— WATER- 
TOWN IN 1S76; As A City— Its Past and Present City Government— Popula- 
tion— Its General Appearance and Characteristics- What Industry has done 
—Its Public Buildings— Public Schools— Water Works— Fire Department- 
Banking Institutions— Insurance Companies— Churches— Hotels— Newspapers 
Civic Societies — Healthfulness — Caves — Cemeteries — MANUFACTORIES, 
&C.,— What Others Say of Us. 


If the excellent illustrations contained in this pamphlet did not 
in a great degree speak for themselves, we should call particular atten- 
tion to them. While they do not represent all, they illustrate most 
of the finest buildings and manufactories of our city, and give to a 
stranger an excellent but not a perfect idea of the value and extent 
of our architectural attractions. The expense attending the produc- 
tion of the engravings and illustrations has been in a great measure 
borne by the owners of the buildings represented. The remainder 
have been furnished by the Association. 

The larger portion of the illustrative work shown herein, is repre- 
resented by " Osborne's process " of photo-lithographing, furnished 
by the American Photo-Lithographic Co., of New York, a company 
which we cordially commend to the public, not only for the superior 
character of its work, but because it is fair and reasonable in its 
charges, courteous in its treatment, and obliging and patient with its 

Most of the photographic views from which the illustrations were 
drawn, have been furnished by Charles S. Hart of Watertown, 
whose artistic work is unsurpassed for excellence and finish. He 
and his assistants have aided very materially in rendering this por- 
tion of the pamphlet presentable and attractive. 

Most of the maps and illustrations of buildings presented are 
alluded to and described in other portions of this work, as well as 
the views of Watertown in 1804 and in 1873. 




The illustration on the second page presents Black River Falls 
and Suspension Bridge, representing one of the liveliest points on our 
busy river. These falls extend from Beebee's Island to the north 
shore of the river, over one hundred feet, and are, in their full glory 
over forty feet in height. For several rods along the north shore 
extends a powerful flume, furnishing an abundance of water power 
to the several manufactories situated at that point. 

The suspension bridge is 120 feet long, 20 feet wide, and is one 
of the finest structures of the kind in Northern New York. It 
is strong and durable in every respect and has sustained without 
injury every pressure that has been brought to bear upon it. The 
first bridge erected at this point was erected in 1836 by Philo C. 
Moulton. It was a wooden structure and was rebuilt in 1853. 


We give elsewhere, an illustration showing Watertown as it was 
in 1804 with a corresponding chart naming each structure which 
then comprised the little hamlet. There is probably no person living 
who remembers the spot as it then existed, and but for the chart 
which was drawn in 1804, all historic trace would have been removed. 
The picture can best be appreciated by comparing it with the repre- 
sentation of Watertown in 1873, given on another page. The lesson 
which it teaches of change, improvement, and progress is important, 
if we look to the future, and estimate the progress of the next half 
century by the past. 

'Ilie mill shown, located near Beebee's Island is put down as 
" Cowan's saw mill." Mr, Hough in his history alludes to it as a 
" grist mill." The map was doubtless correct. 


Watertown became an incorporated village April 5, 1816. The 
act of incorporation provided for the election of five trustees, one 
for each ward, in whom was vested the usual powers of similar cor- 
porations. These extended to the formation of a fire department, 
the construction of water works, regulation of streets, &c. On the 
first Monday in May of the same year, the first village election was 
held, at which Timothy Burr was chosen President. March 22, 


1832, the village trustees were empowered by an act of the Legisla- 
ture to borrow not to exceed $2,000, to improve the fire department. 
An act was passed April 16, 1835, authorizing the erection of a 
market, April 16, 1852, the boundaries of the village were extended 
and two wards added, making seven in all. The officers consisted 
of President, three Assessors, Clerk, Treasurer, Collector and two 
police constables. Elections were held on the first Monday in 

Following is a list of Presidents during the existence of the village : 
181 6, Timothy Burr; 1817, Isaac Lee; 1818, Orren Stone; 18 19, 
William Smith; 1820, Egbert Ten Eyek; 1821, Olney Pearce ; 
1822, David W. Bucklin ; 1823-4, Orville Hungerford; 1825-6, 
Olney Pearce; 1827-31, Norris M. Woodrufi"; 1832, Jason Fair- 
banks; 1833-5, O. Hungerford ; 1836, Jason Fairbanks; 1837-8, 
Dyer Huntington ; 1839, David D. Otis ; 1840, George C. Sherman , 
1 84 1, William Wood; 1842-3, William H. Robinson.; 1844, Ben- 
jamin Cory; 1845, D. Huntington; 1846, Orville Brainard ; 1847; 
Stephen Boon; 1848, Peter S. Llowk ; 1849-50, D. D. Otis; 1851, 
Joshua Moore; 1852, K. Hannahs; 1853-4, Joseph Mullin ; 
1855, Randolph Barnes; 1856-58, Henry H. Babcock ; 1859^ 
Ambrose W. Clark; 1860-3, Henry H. Babcock; 1864-5, John M. 
Carpenter; 1866, George A. Bagley ; 1867, Wilbur F. Porter; 
1868, Lysander H. Brown; 1869, Edmund B. Wynn. 


Like all cities, Watertown has shared her portion of devastation 
by fire in years past. Since the completion of her powerful water 
works in 1853, however, and their enlargement in 1873, the fire fiend 
has slumbered in comparative quiet beyond the ordinary demands 
of careless people, and she has not been purified by its stern demands. 
Hardly a fire has been allowed to extend itself beyond the building 
in which it originated. 

The most disastrous fire which ever visited the place was May 13, 
1849, which swept over a considerable section of the business portion 
of the village, destroying an immense amount of property. The 
American hotel, Paddock's Building, Iron Block and all the build- 
ings on both sides of Court street, for nearly an eighth of a mile 
were swept away, including three printing offices, thirty extensive 
stores, three banks, post ofiice, the Episcopal Church, and many 
dwelling houses. 


In less enterprising towns this disaster would have been fatal to 
progress and prosperity. But with Watertown, her energies sprang 
forth anew as soon as the blow was struck, and it was a signal for 
greater effort and further improvement. Some of the finest business 
blocks in the State now adorn the once devastated district. 

Mr. Hough's comments in his history of 1854, were as follows : — 
" This was by far the most disastrous fire that ever occurred in the 
county, and nothing more fully proves the enterprise of the place, 
than the quickness with which it recovered from the disaster. While 
the flames were still raging, preparations for re-building were made, 
by purchasing materials, and laborers were seen pulling the bricks 
still hot, from the smouldering ruins, and laying the foundations of 
new and larger buildings on the site of those destroyed. The sites 
of the burned buildings were in many instances sold for a greater 
sum than the same with the buildings on them would have previ- 
ously brought. During the ensuing summer the village exhibited 
an industry among masons and carpenters which had never been 
equalled, and the external appearance of the village has been greatly 
improved. The place recovered with an elastic energy character- 
istic of a progressive age and people." 


With a population of about 9,000 the village aspired to become a 
city. Its aspirations were realized May 8, 1869, when a city charter 
was obtained. On the 15th of June, of the same year, the first city 
government assumed control of the new made municipality. This 
government is vested in a Mayor, and two Aldermen from each of 
the four wards of the city. The Mayor, and one Alderman from 
each ward, are chosen on the third Tuesday of December of each 
year. Following is a hst of its city ofiicers to the present date : 

Mayor — 1869-70-71, G. W^ Flower; 1872, Gilderoy Lord; 
1873-4, W. F. Porter; 1875, Bradley Winslow ; 1876, Levi H. 

Recorder — 1869 to 1876, Laban H. Ainsworth. 

City Clerk — 1869-70, Edward M- Gates; 1871, A. D. Seaver. 

Treasurer — 1869-70, Louis C. Greenleaf; 187 1, J. A. Quencer. 

Chamberlain* — 1872, George Smith; 1873-4-5, Byron D. Ad.'^it; 
1876, Charles A. Settle. 

"The office of Chamberlain lias, since 1872, combinea the offices of Clerk and Treasurer. 


y/fe /^a^ttc 




^r^v '''' 

^^'•^/rv-' ■iPj^'l J7?tz-^i^^^-/-'?/- 




Street Commissioner — 1869-70, Jacob Hermes; 1871-2, Ste- 
phen Clark; 1873-4, J. Quencer, Jr. ; 1875, Joseph Miser; 1876, 
Egbert T. Butterfield. 

Overseer of Poor — 1869-70-71, Claik Wetherby; 1872-3-4-5, 
Solon B. Hart; 1876, Daniel McCormick. 

Justice of Peace — 1869-70-71-72-75-76, Lysander H. Brown ; 
1873-74, Thomas Baker. 


Mayor, Levi H. Brown; Chamberlain, Charles A. Settle; 
Recorder, Laban H. Ainsworth; Justice of the Peace, Lysander H. 
Brown; Street Commissioner, E. T. Butterfield; Overseer of Poor, 
D. McCormick; Assessors, S. T. Bordwell, H. P. Cooke, Solomon 
O. Gale, Charles W. Acker, Nelson Burdick; Aldermen — First Ward 
— Walter S. Lamb, Nathan Whiting ; Second Ward, Gilbert Brad- 
ford, George Smith; Third Ward, Thomas Baker, Timothy A. 
Smith ; Fourth Ward, Soranus H. Tripp, Robert B. Richardson ; 
Policemen — Chief — Miles Guest, William McCutchin, Thomas 
Millington, Charles G. Champlin. ♦ 


general winslow. 

In connection with the current history of our city government 
and its more recent officers, we present an excellent portrait of Gen- 
eral Bradley Winslow, Mayor of the city in 1875, and President of 
the Manufacturer's Aid Association since its organization. We may 
add that General Winslow's administration of the city's affairs in 
1875 was one of the most prudent and economical which the city 
has ever enjoyed. He taught the people in the ways of reform and 
retired with the thanks of all classes of citizens, and their regrets 
that he would not consent to serve them longer. It was through 
his advice and personal efforts that this Association was formed " to 
make an effort to develope and aid the manufacturing interests of 
our city. " His interest in its work, and in the realization of its 
objects, has been sincere and unselfish, and entitles him to the cor- 
dial thanks of our people. 

mayor brown. 

We also present a faithful portrait of Levi H. Brown Esq., the 
" centennial " and present Mayor of our city. He was elected in 


December 1875, and his aim and effort seem to be to give our citizens 
an administration which in practical economy shall meet their hearty 
approval. In this respect he seems to be carrying out the wishes of 
the whole people, and winning their good opinions by his efforts to 
do what is best for the interests of our city. 


In 1800 there were 119 voters, and in 1801, 134 voters in what 
was then the town of Watertown, according to the first official 
" count " ever made of the voting population of the then '• far west 
Black River country." The census returns of 1807, the first formal 
figures obtained, gave the number of legal voters with property 
qualifications only. The following table will give an idea of the 
steady growth of the village and city : 

1800 119 

1801 134 

1P07 231 

1810.-. .. 1. 841 

T814 2,458 

I820 2,766 

1825 .r. 3,425 

1830 4,708 

1835 -- 4.279 

1840 5,027 

1845 5,432 

1S50 7,201 

1855---- 7,557 

i860 7,567 

1865 8,194 

1870*... 9,336 

i875t-- 10,041 


The illustration shown elsewhere " Bird's-eye view of Watertown 
in 1873," will give the reader a very clear idea of the location, gen- 
eral beauty and surroundings of our city as it exists to-day. The 
winding course of Black River appears in the foreground, showing 
the location of many of the manufactories which line its banks, 
demonstrating the existence of a large amount of activity, and prov- 
ing also that there is plenty of room for many more institutions of 
similar strength and importance. The railroad lines entering the 
city are represented — the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg on 
the lower left hand corner, coming from Ogdensburg, winding 
through the city and bearing away south towards Rome — the Cape 
Vincent Branch appearing on the left. The Utica & Black River 
road enters the city from Utica, on the left, passes through the city 
and bears off at the upper right hand to Sackets Harbor. The pas- 

*City only. 

t There is every reason to believe tliat tbe census of 1875 was liastilj^ taken and 
incorrect, aticl a private census taken in 1876, places tlie population at over 11,000. 


senger and freight depots of both these raih'oad Hnes are located near 
the centre of the city. PubHc Square appears prominently near the 
heart of the town, surrounded by many of our best public buildings 
which are illustrated and described elsewhere. Suspension bridge 
is shown on Mill street, north of Beebee's Island and clusters of 
busy manufactories, machine shops and factories of various kmds 
are located in this vicinity. On the extreme left and right are situ- 
ated three of the paper mills of the city — the fourth being near Mill 
street and Beebee's Island. The large wagon manufactory, foundry, 
tanneries, &c., are located at the left, an extensive tannery also 
appearing on the right. Most of the flouring mills are situated near 
the centre of the city, on Mill street. 

Reference to this illustration, in connection with the map defining 
the streets, presented opposite page twenty- four, will enable the 
reader to fix the location of the various public buildings and manu- 
factories described in the following pages. 


Watertown as it is, is a thrifty, enterprising and prosperous city, 
the county seat of a pros])erous county, the leading city of Northern 
New York, a source of pride to her citizens, and a monument of 
what energy and industry have done for her. Situated in the centre 
of a fertile and productive region, in the Black River Valley and upon 
the banks of Black River itself, she possesses important commercial 
advantages, given her by nature, unexcelled anywhere. Her people 
have made diligent use of these, not only enriching themselves 
thereby, but increasing her strength, adding to her influence, and 
multiplying her attractions. Peopled by an industrious population 
many of whom have grown up with her growth and strengthened 
with her strength, her progress and development bear evidences ot 
an industry and a progressive spirit which have made fertile fields of 
her forests, trained the rushing waters to do their bidding, overcome 
all obstacles, taken advantage of every opportunity to increase her 
stability, made the most of every inducement offered, and estab- 
lished herself and her industries upon a strong and safe foundation. 
Beautiful in herself by nature, the labors of her citizens have pre- 
served that beauty to her. She is yet young in her progress, but no 
other city excels her in beautiful location, handsome streets, boun- 
tiful shade, elegant public and private buildings, or hospitable people. 


Evidences of wealth and strength, industry, energy and intelligence 
everywhere abound, the ready proofs of a healthy and wide awake 
community. Her water power is unlimited, her manufactories impor- 
tant and well managed, her school system in the front rank, her rail- 
road advantages of the best, her banking institutions among the oldest 
and soundest in the State, her commercial industries many and 
thriving — her merchants numerous and enterprising, and her facili- 
ties for extending her influence and increasing her usefulness 

With these go a generous social life, a friendly spirit, cordiality, 
hospitality, live and excellent newspapers, prosperous churches, and 
all the elements which make society healthy, attractive and agreea- 
ble. The wisdom of the founders of the city, finds echo in the pros- 
perity of to-day, and the good name of the pioneers is reflected in 
the integrity of the people of the present generation. The spirit of 
activity and progress is the characteristic of the people as we find 
them to-day. In this spirit they hold out their hands to welcome 
all who may read of her, and who may yield to the tempting advan- 
tages she offers as a busy place of industry or as a city of quiet 


One of the chief beauties of the place is Public Square, located 
in the heart of the city, comprising an open mall, containing nearly 
ten acres of land. This spot was set aside as a public park early in 
1805, and presented to the city by those who owned lands lying 
adjacent. The people of to-day have their ancestors to thank for 
this handsome breathing spot, set like a gem in the busiest por- 
tion of the town, and which has grown with its years to be more and 
more attractive, and adds greatly to the beauty of the city. It is 
surrounded on all sides by most of the finest buildings in the city, 
and gives to the spectator an impression of beauty and life which 
cannot be easily removed. The Square is entered by six of the 
most important streets, and has become therefore an important busi- 
ness centre. Two large oval parks with a smaller one between, 
occupy a portion of this space, the two former well supphed with lawn 
and shade, and the latter embelHshed by an elaborate fountain. 
Around and between these parks are spacious driveways. 







The streets of Watertown are regularly and tastefully laid out — 
many of them very wide and spacious. It will be difficult to find 
a street more charming to the eye than Washington street. Its rows 
of shade trees and handsome lawns with its uncommon width com- 
bine to produce a very pleasing effect. Among the other handsome 
streets of our city may be mentioned Clinton, Sterling, Ten Eyck, 
Paddock, Stone, State, Franklin and Massey. 


The country around affords a great variety of delightful walks 
and drives, and presents many attractive and interesting views of 
the surrounding country. Many of the drives, especially along the 
river, up and down, abound in romantic and picturesque scenery. 


A gas company was organized in 1852 and the city has since 
enjoyed the luxury of gas light. 


Dr. Hough in his remarks concerning the growth and develop- 
ment of Watertown, made use of the following language in his 
" History of Jefferson County," in 1854. The sentiment is as appH- 
cable to-day as twenty years ago : 

" It is a singular fact that Watertow^n in common with the whole 
county of Jefferson, while it vies in wealth and enterprise with the 
most favored portions of the State, owes very little, if anything to 
imported capital. In most instances the wealth now existing has 
been acquired on the spot, by those w^ho, at an early period were 
thrown upon their own immediate exertions for support, and from 
the ashes of the timbers that covered the land, and the first crops 
which the virgin soil yielded in kind profusion, they received that 
first impulse, which, seconded by industry, prudence and sagacity, 
has not failed in bringing its reward." 



One of the most prominent features of Watertown as a city, and 
the characteristic which attracts the attention of visitors, is the ele- 
gance and substantial beauty of its public buildings and business 
blocks. In this respect it yields none of its claims to attention, and 
while it excels nearly every city of its size, rivals if not equals the 
appearance of many larger municipalities. The exhibit illustrates 
in a high degree the enterprise of those under whose direction the 
buildings were erected, the taste and skill of our architects, the 
growing demands of business, and tells its own story of wealth and 

In other portions of this work will be found full descriptions of 
the manufacturing establishments, together with the churches, hotels 
and schools of Watertown. Our object here is to note the most 
prominent of the notable buildings which adorn Public Square and 
the principal streets. 

In this connection it seems proper to quote Dr. Hough's opinion 
on this subject, expressed in 1854, in his admirable history : 

" The taste which has been exhibited within two or three years in 
the erection of private dwellings, cannot fail of being noticed and 
admired by strangers, and this if continued, will soon render the 
village as conspicuous among the inland towns of the State, for 
the classic elegance of its private as well as its public buildings, as it 
has already become for the immensity of its water power, and the 
extraordinary combination of facilities for manufacturing purposes 
which it possesses." 

Jefferson Countv Court House is one of the finest of our 
public buildings and is situated at the corner of Arsenal and Bene- 
dict streets. It is surrounded by spacious grounds, enclosed by a 
handsome iron fence. The building was erected in 1862 at a cost 
ot $50,000. It is built of brick and stone, is two stories high, and 
100x50 feet. During the present year provision has been -made 
for ornamenting the yard with trees and shrubbery. The court room 
and Supervisors room are among the finest and largest in the State. 
The building is supplied with water and gas throughout. It contains 
the Surrogate's oftice and the County Clerk's ofiice is located in the 
rear. (See illustration.) 


The Winslow Block, the most attractive of our business blocks, 
occupies the angle formed by Franklin street and Public Square. 
It was erected by Hon. Norris Winslow in 1874. It fronts 174 feet 
on the Square, and 194 on Franklin street, and varies in width 
from 12 to 130 feet. It is five stories high, built substantially, of 
brick, and is admirably arranged for business purposes. The first 
floor contains eight stores, and there are also several others on the 
second floor. The remainder of the building is devoted to ofiices, 
halls, and private rooms. The three upper stories are reached by a 
broad stairway, and contain an arcade 125 feet long and three stories 
high. (See illustration.) It may here be said with truth that this 
building is another and a durable monument of the industry, enter- 
prise and public spirit of its founder. No man has done more for 
the substantial good of Watertown in the erection of public buildings 
and private residences, and he deserves the good will and esteem of 
every citizen. 

Washington Hall stands at the corner of Washington street and 
Public Square and is one of the finest and most conspicuous structures 
in Watertown. It was built in 1853, on the site of Perkins' hotel, and 
the sjte of the second dwelling erected in the city. It was built by 
Walter and Gilbert Woodruff and came into the possession of John A. 
Sherman in July 1859 who has since owned and improved it. The 
building is of brick, 90x120 feet in size and three stories high. The first 
floor is occupied by eight stores, the second story by ofiices and the 
third is devoted to one of the finest halls in the State — capable of 
seating 1,200 persons with standing room for 300 more. .Its height 
is 37 feet, and it is elaborately frescoed. The stage is 40 by 46 feet. 
The handsome illustration shown elsewhere does but simple justice 
to a fine and substantial building. 

The Agricultural Insurance Company's Block, located on 
Washington street near Washington Hall, is the best and most sub- 
stantial oflice building in Northern New York. It was erected in 
1873 at a cost of $50,000. It is 26x103 feet, three stories high, and 
basement. The walls are brick, with a handsome marble front sur- 
mounted by a figure of" Ceres." It was erected by John W. Grifiin. 
It is occupied by the Agricultural and Watertown Fire Insurance 

The Doolittle & Hall Block is situated on Public Square a 
short distance east of the Woodruff House, and presents a fine 


appearance. It was built in 1871 by L. D. Doolittle and R. H. 
Hall. It is of brick, three stories high, and presents a front of 90 
feet. Gas and waterpipe extend throughout the building. Its first 
floor contains five stores, its second floor is devoted to offices, and its 
third floor to offices and a hall. The building is now owned by R. 
H. Hall. (See illustration.) 

The Van Namee Block is one of the most prominent of the pri- 
vate business blocks in the city. It is of brick, four stories high, and 
was built in 1873 by Richard Van Namee, one of the most practi- 
cal business men in the community. Its first floor is occupied by 
Van Namee Brothers pharmacy, the remainder being used for oflices 
etc. (See illustration.) 

The Streeter Block is located at the corner of Public Square 
and Mill street and fronts on each about 90 feet. It is three stories 
high besides basement and attic. There are seven stores in the 
building, built in 1843 by different parties. They are. now owned 
by N. W. Streeter, one of the early citizens of the county. It is a 
handsome and busy block. (See illustration.) 

The Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg R. R. Depot, situ- 
ated in the rear of the Woodrufl" House is a tasty structure of brick 
consisting of two divisions. The three story part is 48x54 feet and 
the two story, 2 7x68 feet. It is heated by steam and handsomely 
furnished throughout. The offices of the road are located in the 

building. (See illustration.) 

The Paddock Buildings on the west side of Pubhc Square, 
adjoining the American Hotel, were erected in- 1849 by L. Paddock. 
They are devoted to stores, law offices, &c. One of the best and 
most convenient and attractive Arcades in the State extends through 
this building to Arcade street containing the post office and a score 
of stores and offices. The building is of brick and four stories high. 
(See illustration.) 

Scripture & Clark's Carriage Repositorv on Arsenal street 
was erected in 1876. It is one of the tastiest of the smaller blocks 
in town. It is built of wood, covered with iron, and is three stories 
high. (See illustration.) 

The Iron Block on the nordi side of PubHc Square, west of the 
Woodruff" House, is a fine brick structure four stories high. It is one 
of the most sightly blocks in the city. 




t— « 







V. S. Hubbard's Block at the corner of Public Square and 
Franklin street, is one of the best private business blocks in the city. 
(See illustration.) 

The Fairbanks Block is a triangular structure situated on 
Arsenal and Court streets. It is of brick, four stories high, built by 
Jason Fairbanks. 

Adjoining the Paddock Buildings on the south, are four imposing 
business blocks, including Masonic Hall. Union Bank is located in 
one of these buikiings, and the National Bank and I^oan Co., 
occupies and owns the corner on the south. 

Adjoining the Iron Block on the west, is the Merchants' Bank 
building; the Safford and Hayes blocks extending north on Court 
street. Several other fine blocks are located on Court street. 

Mechanics' Hall, erected by Hon. N. Winslow, and Carpen- 
ter's block are located on Factory street. 

The Jefferson County Orphan Asylum on Franklin street, is a taste- 
ful structure of brick, and surrounded by a pleasant grove. About 
30 orphans are here cared for and taught. The institution is ably 
managed and more than maintains itself 

The Jefferson County Poor House and Insane Asylum is pleas- 
antly located on Main street, just outside the city limits, on the bank 
of Black River. The buildings are large and commodious, built of 
stone and brick, and stand near a handsome grove. Connected 
with this institution is a productive farm, managed in the interest 
of the county. 



Comparison will prove that the p\iblic school system of Water- 
town, justly ranks among the best in the State, and is worthy to be 
' classed among our attractions. The system has proved itself 
adapted to the wants of the people and the demands of the times. 
The city is liberal in its appropriations for its maintenance and pro- 
gress, and the citizens are becoming thoroughly interested in their 
educational rights and privileges. The system now embraces a high 
scliool with inferior grades and competent teachers and diligent 
pupils have contributed to its present high standard of excellence. 
The history of its development is instructive and interesting. 


In the year 1802, Miss Sally Coffeen, a daughter of the pioneer 
Henry Coffeen, gathered about her the few children there were in the 
settlement, and founded the first school in an unoccupied barn where 
now stands the " Despatch " block on Arcade street. Her sister, 
Heiress Coffeen, shortly afterward obtained more comfortable 
quarters, in a log house on Washington street where she taught 
until 1804, when 


in Jefferson County was organized, then embracing the whole town 
of Watertown. Immediately thereafter a small frame building was 
erected on the crest of a steep hill where the Universalist Church 
now stands. It was a primitive school house indeed, both inside and 
out, giving the least possible comfort to the greatest number. It was 
elevated about four feet from the ground, and underpinned by logs 
set on end. Inside, the pupils enjoyed the luxury of sitting on a 
pine board extending around the room, while the teacher occupied 
the spacious " amphitheater." The first teacher was a Mr. Mc 
Gregor, a native of Scotland, and after him came a " missionary " 
named Leavenworth. He was succeeded by Roswell Babbitt, and 
he by a Mr. Laidlow. The next incumbent was an eccentric indi- 
vidual named Jeremiah Bishop. He became involved in debt, and 
his creditors placed him on the "jail limits," refusing to imprison 
him, that the best interests of the community might not suffer. He 
was a man of science withal, and devised means for exterminating 


noxious weeds from Public Square. Noticing the walks overgrown 
with thistles, and having a strong aversion to the sickle, he sprinkled 
them with salt to give them a better relish to the cows and sheep 
which roamed at large on the common. Contrary to his expecta- 
tion, the result was not a success, but he claimed that time alone 
would demonstrate the value of his idea. After Bishop came Cowan 
and Everett, the latter of whom coiitinued until 1816. The first 
court ever held in the county Avas held in this school house in 1807, 
when justice suffered fewer wrongs than in the present day. 


In 18 16 the village was incorporated and divided into two school 
districts separated by Washington street. The following year a plain 
one story brick building was erected at the corner of Arsenal and 
Massey streets, and used for school purposes for the western district. 
The site is now occupied by the spacious '• Arsenal street school " 
building. At the same time the brick Academy, which was erected 
as a Seminary in 181 1, on the site now occupied by the First Pres- 
byterian Church, and which during the war of 181 2 was occupied 
at times as a hospital, was refitted for the eastern school district. 
In 181 7, Hon. Avery Skinner, then a young man of tw^enty years, 
filled very acceptably the position of teacher in this school. He was 
afterwards employed in the Arsenal street school, and subsequently 
for several years taught a private school near the Washington Hall 

Mr. D. G. Griftin, Superintendent of schools for many years, in a 
a history of the schools of Watertown, from which we have quoted 
largely above, speaks of Mr. S. as follows: " He was no less dis- 
tinguished as an efticient teacher, than he was in later years as an 
upright and worthy legislator." He rode horseback from New Hamp- 
shire in 1816 to settle in Watertown, where he remained seven years. 
He is now living in Oswego county, in his 80th year, cheered and 
comforted by the consciousness of an honorable life well spent, and 
by pleasant memories of W'atertown friends and associations. 

In 1S20, further school districts were added, and a building 
refitted on Factory street for school purposes. A brick school house 
was erected on the same street soon after, and occupied until 1852, 
when the present Lamon street school building was erected. The 
brick Academy was sold to the Presbyterian society, a school being 



JIM. mow UTWuR/U'wc caN.r. osBojfwcs mccesi.1 


continued in the upper story until 1823, when a building was 
erected where Grace church now stands and which was used until 

After the sale of the brick Academy, in 1820, the building was 
taken down in 1823 and the material used in the- erection of the 
Watertown Female Academy on Clinton Street, which from 1828 to 
1837 was held in high repute. 

In the year 1832 an Academy was built on Academy street for the 
purpose of giving advantages for the higher education of young 
men. Its promoters were Micah Sterhng, Egbert Ten Eyck, O. 
Hungerford, J. Fairbanks, L. Paddock, N. M. Woodruff, H. D. 
Sewall, Thomas Baker, R. Goodale, William Smith, J. Butterfield, 
Joseph Goodale, Joseph Kimball, G. S. Boardman and John Saf- 
ford. This Academy was opened September 19, 1832, under the 
principalship of L. P. Thompson. He was succeeded by Samuel 
Belding and he by Hon. Joseph Mullin, now one of the honored 
Judges of the Supreme Court, and still a resident of this city with 
whose progress and prosperity he has been and is largely identified. 

In 1836 a movement was inaugurated by the Watertown Presby- 
tery and the Black River Association, which latter body had charge 
of the Academy, to establish an educational institution of a higher 
order than any yet proposed, and in 1838 the " Black River Liter- 
ary and Religious Institute" was erected at a cost of $6,500. The 
corner stone was laid June 5, 1838, with appropriate ceremonies, in 
the presence of a large audience, among whom was Governor 
Marcy. February 23, 1846, its name was changed to the "Jeffer- 
son County Institute," under which title it existed until 1865 when 
it w^as leased for a High School to the Board of Education which 
was incorporated in 1864. A handsome illustration of this building, 
located at the corner of State and Mechanic streets is presented in 
connection with this article. 

The present school establishment of the city may be described as 
follows : 




Name of Scliool. 


Arsenal street... 

Lamon street 

Academy street. 

Mullin street 

Cooper street 

Boon street. 

Bradley street... 
Factory street. . . 



Of what 


built.— Size 


of building. 


Brick 2 story. 


" " 


(( ii 


Stone, " 


Brick, " 


" 1 story 


" 2 " 


Stone, 1 story 


11 a 


Value of 

$17,750 57 

13,900 00 

21,000 00 

6,806 00 

6,875 00 

3,500 00 

15,500 00 

625 00 

675 00 

Size Of 







3,32 • 
















No. Of 


The following figures will give an idea of the extent of our school 
population and school expenses so far as obtainable, since 1865 : 

No. Of 







for scliool^. 

For tlie fiscal year ending July 1 

, 1866. 


$ 9,908 44 • 



14,750 14 
20,419 12 







16.594 15 





19,652 41 





25,275 45 





30,156 49 





28,475 71 





32,934 65 

tl u a 





36,996 35 





28,000 00* 



An excellent and well selected library is connected with the pub- 
lic schools of our city. It numbers 3,200 volumes and additions 
are being continually made. It is open to the public as well as to 
the schools free of expense, and is used to excellent advantage. 

As our people come to understand the salutary workings of the 
public school system of the city, they feel a just pride in it, and are 
awaking to the behef that it is not excelled anywhere for efficiency 
and usefulness. It is presided over by a trusty and capable corps of 
teachers nowhere excelled for ability and discipline. The High 
School ofters special advantages in thorough educational training 
and its graduates are at the present time honored members of the 
following higher institutions : Yale, Trinity, Dartmouth, Hamilton, 
Tufts and Amherst colleges, and Syracuse, Cornell, Wesleyan, 
Brown and Michigan universities. 

A movement is now proposed looking toward the establishment 
of a thorough course of commercial education, which is designed to 


educate young men in business matters and to fit them thoroughly 
for the duties of a business Hfe. 


The general charge of the schools of our city is vested in a 
Board of Education which consists of eleven members, three of 
whom are chosen in June of each year, for three years, and two of 
whom are appointed by the trustees of the " Jefferson County Insti- 
tute." The following comprises the Board of Education for 1875-6 : 
B. Brockway, President ; John Lansing, Isaac A. Graves, Hannibal 
Smith, Solon B. Hart, William \V. Taggart, William S. Carlisle, 
Henry H. Smith, C. R. Skinner, E. Q. Sewall, S. C. Knickerbocker. 
Mr. A. R. Beal is Superintendent of Schools, and Prof. W. K. Wickes, 
Principal of the High School. 


As early as May 22, 182 1, a plan for supplying the village with 
water was discussed, and action was taken towards the erection of 
reservoirs, but the measures were not carried out. June 14, 1828, 
the sum of $50 was appropriated by the trustees for the purpose of 
boring for water on Factory Square. At the annual meeting in 
1829 the proceeds of licenses in the First Ward were applied towards 
procuring water for the village. May 21, 1829, the sum of $200 
was voted for the purpose of boring for water, and in pursuance of 
this object, an artesian well was commenced on Public Square. 
After it had been sunk many feet a steel drill was maliciously 
dropped into it thereby stopping the work. 

In 1829, an association was formed for boring for water on- 
Factory Square. A hole 2^ inches in diameter was drilled to the 
depth of 127 feet when water was obtained, and having been tubed 
discharged for many years until about i860, a copious volume of water 
slightly charged with sulphur and iron. On Sewall's Island a 
similar well was bored into the rock which at 80 feet discharged 
water and an inflammable gas, but being drilled deeper these both 
were lost. 

April 10, 1826, the Watertown Water Company was incorporated, 
but nothing definite resulted and a similar result followed the incor- 
poration of the Watertown Waterworks, April 11, 1845. But in 
1853 (March 22), L. Paddock, G. C. Sherman, I. H. Fisk and H. 


Cooper were incorporated as the Water Commissioners of the village 
of Watertown. These citizens gave a joint bond of $60,000 and 
were empowered to borrow on the ciedit of the village $50,000 for a 
term of 30 years. Soon after their appointment, the Commissioners 
contracted with J. C. Wells for the construction of a pump house 
and reservoir, the latter to be 150x250 feet at the water line and 12 
feet deep, properly made with two center walls for filtering. The 
reservoir was located about a mile southeast of the village on a lot of 
six acres, upon the brow of the limestone ridge, 180 feet above the 
village, and was given a capacity of two million gallons. The site 
of the reservoir is beautiful and commanding and presents to the eye 
the finest view obtainable of the city and the surrounding country. 

On the 23d of November 1853, the water works were completed 
and water for the first time was pumped into the reservoir, and let 
into pipes communicating with residences and fire hydrants. An 
experiment then made showed that water could be thrown 120 feet 

No serious fires have devastated the city sinc:e the completion of 
the reservoir, but the growth of the city, and the increasing demands 
of its people, led the Water Commissioners in 187 1 to construct still 
another reservoir. This was located by the side of the former and 
was completed in 1873. Its dimensions are 250x200 feet and its 
capacity four and a half million gallons. The water is distributed 
to residences and 100 fire hydrants throughout the city by 16 miles of 
water mains and pipes. 

The following constitute the Board of Water Commissioners for 
1876: Richard Van Namee, President; Charles A. Sherman, Secre- 
tary; John F. Moffett, John C. Knowlton, C. A. Holden. Parson 
T. Hines is Superintendent and N. P. Wardwell, Clerk. 


jiM.fWOrO-LITMOmiPHIC CaM Y/assomtsf/wccssJ 




Watertown has just reason to feel proud of, and confidence in her 
fire department, and we feel disposed to enumerate it among her 
attractions. It is certainly a just claim that no other city of its size 
can boast a more effective fire organization, while it is equally true 
that many cities containing five times her population cannot surpass, 
even if they equal her. 

The original charter incorporating the village of Watertown, pro- 
vided for the election of five fire wardens, each of whom was supplied 
with four ladders. Each owner or occupant of any building was 
obliged to furnish one or two buckets, according to the size of the 
structure, and to have them properly marked, and kept in a conven- 
ient place for use. It was also " ordained " that on an alarm or 
cry of fire, every male inhabitant of 15 years and upward should 
repair to the place of the fire " forthwith " and put himself under 
the direction of the fire wardens. A fine of %i was imposed for 
" disobeying orders." Each warden was furnished with a white stafi" 
seven feet long by which to " distinguish " himself. 

The first fire company was organized May 28, 181 7, and on Sep- 
tember 27 following, at a meeting of the " freeholders " the sum of 
$200 was voted toward the purchase of a first class fire engine. The 
" Cataract " was purchased soon afterward. The same meeting 
authorized the formation of a Hook and Ladder Company, and 
William Smith was its first captain. August 6, 1832, the second 
engine company was formed and attached to the fire engine belong- 
ing to the Jefferson Cotton Mills. This company was No. i, and the 
one previously organized. Cataract Co. No. 2 ; Dyer Hunting- 
ton was chosen Chief Engineer, and Adriel Ely Assistant. In April, 
1835, Neptune Engine Co. No. 3, was formed with the first brake 
engine used in town. In 1837 this company became No. i. In 
1842 a company was organized to take charge of the engine form- 
erly belonging to No. i. This company disbanded in 1845 and the 
same yearanevv engine having been purchased, a new company was 
formed and called Jefferson Hose No. 3. Cataract Co. No. 2 
was disbanded about this time, its engine having been damaged. 
In June 1848 a new engine was purchased for No. i, and in July 


of the same year Central Hose Co. No. 2, was organized, taking the 
old " machine " of No. i, which was called " Rough and Ready," and 
which was stored in barns or sheds as place could be found. These 
companies exist under the same names to-day, and are doing excellent 
service as our fire record proves. On the loth of April 1850 the fire 
department was chartered by act of Legislature, and the status of 
the active branch of the department, January i, 1876, was as follows : 

Name of Company. Organized. Membership. Present Foreman. 

N eptune Engine and Hose Co. No. 1, April, 1835 44 Wm. O. Baker. 

Central steamer and Hose Co. No. 2, July 1848. 53 J. Cliase,Jr. 

Jefferson Hose Co. No, 3 1845. 52 G. H. Babcock. 

Jolin Hancock H. and L. Co. No 1. . . June 10, ISli 43 W. W. Starkweather. 

There were also four companies of " exempt firemen," with a 
total membership of 171. 

Neptune Company occupies a substantial brick building on 
Factory street, and Central Company a similar building on Goodale 
street. The last two occupy Firemen's Hall on Stone street built 
by the village in 1854. The other buildings are owned by the 
department. The city pays the regular expenses of the organiza- 
tion including rent, &c. January 11, 185 1, the department was in 
debt 56 cents. It has now an ample fund on hand, received 
chiefly from taxes on insurance companies outside the State, doing 
business here, for the support of disabled firemen. It has also 
erected two engine houses, and February 8, 1875, by resolution o£ 
its directors decided to purchase a first class steam engine for 
especial use along the river, at important manufacturing points not 
easily reached by fire hydrants. A Silsby rotary engine, one of the 
best in the world, was purchased for $4,000. It has already done 
effective service, and demonstrated its superiority. The city, the 
same summer placed in the Court House tower, a fire alarm bell 
weighing 4,000 pounds. No further facts are needed to demon- 
strate that Watertown is well protected against large or dangerous 
fires, especially when it is remembered that the reservoirs described 
elsewhere furnish at all times a plentiful supply of water for fire pur- 
poses by means of one hundred fire hydrants placed at convenient 
points about the city. 

Following is a list of Chief Engineers of the department since its 
formation: — 1832 to '37, Dyer Huntington; 1838, Asher N. Corss ; 
1839, W. H. Robinson; 1839 to '48, (records destroyed); 1848 to 


to '51, N. M. Woodruff; 1S52-3, N. Farnham ; 1854 to '65, Fred 
Emerson; 1866-7, S. B. Hart; 1868-69, T. ^- Chittenden; 1870-71, 
G. L. Davis; 1872-3, J. M. Carpenter; 1874-5, W. S. Carlisle; 
1876, R. L. Utley. 

Following are the officers of the department for 1876 : — Chiet 
Engineer, Robert L. Utley ; ist Assistant, Henry A. Smith; 2nd 
Assistant, John E. Bergevin ; Secretary, Ross C. Scott ; Treasurer, 
Charles R. Skinner. 

The following are directors of the several companies for 1876 : — 
Neptune No. i, R. C. Scott, W. O. Baker; Central No. 2, J. Chase 
Jr., J. C. Donlan ; Jefferson No. 3, C. R. Skinner, G. H. Babcock ; 
Hook and Ladder No. i, W. W. Starkweather, A. A. Johnson; 
Exempt Co. A., C. H. A'^an Brakle, T. S. Graves; Exempt Co. 
B., S. B. Hart, G. Hardy ; Exempt Co. C, James Smith, John 


The earliest movement toward the establishment of a bank in 
Jefferson county was made in 1807. A petition was sent to the 
Legislature praying for a loan to the county of $150,000 on good 
landed security, in bills of credit to be made a legal tender. This 
was not granted upon the ground that the Constitution of the United 
States prohibited state governments from making anything but gold 
and silver coin a legal tender. The Jefferson County Bank was 
incorporated April 17, 1 816, and through a strife between Water- 
town and Brownville, its location was established at Adams, and it 
went into operation on a capital of $80,000. In June, 18 19, it 
failed, and by an act of November 16, 1824, it was removed to 
Watertown, and May 19, 1836, its capital was increased to $200,000. 
Subscriptions were received in shares of $10 each. In 1828 it 
became one of the safety fund banks. The bank still exists and 

The history of other banking institutions is as follows : 

Name. Organized. Capital. 

*Sackets Harbor Bank, April 2S, 1834 $200,000. 

Bank of Watertown, January 26, 1839 100,000. 

Watertown Bank and Loan Co., January 20, 1S39 100,000. 

Black River Bank, May 25, 1844 100,000, 

Union Bank, August 18, 1822 100,000. 

*Tl3e cliarter of this bank was repealed in 1838, restored at a later date, and in 1852 
removed to Buffalo. 


Besides these were several individual banks which have either 
been removed to other points or ceased to exist. Those which 
remain of the above number, together with those which have since 
been established, demonstrate the wealth of the city and surround- 
ing country. Those now in existence are among the soundest in 
the country. 

The present status ot our banks is as follows : 

Jefferson County National Bank, organized in 1816, capital and 
surplus, $200,000. T. H. Camp, President; S. T. Woolworth, 
Cashier. Its Directors are R. Lansing, T. H. Camp, I. H. Fisk, 
W. C. Pierrepont, J. C. Sterling, P. Mundy, Levi H. Brown, R. E. 
Hungerford, A. M. Farwell, G. B. Massey, L. A. Johnson. 

National Bank and Loan Co., organized 1838, capital and surplus 
$85,000. George H. Sherman, President; N. P. Wardwell, 
Cashier. Its Directors are G. H., C. A., M. A., C. N. and C. M. 

National Union Bank, organized 1852, capital and surplus $200,- 
000. Alanson Skinner, President; S. B. Upham, Cashier. Its 
Directors are A. Skinner, S. B. Upham, G. Lord, J. F. Starbuck, J. 
A. Sherman, I. P. Powers, W. W. Taggart, R. C. Scott, J. M. S'g- 
ourney, A. Davis, J. Prouty, J. E. Kemp and A. C. Middleton. 

First National Bank, organized 1863, capital and surplus, $275,- 
000. E. L. Paddock, President ; George L. Woodruff, Cashier. 
Its Directors are E. L., O., C. F., and O. A. Paddock and G. L. 

Merchants Bank, organized 1870, capital and surplus, $300,000. 
Willard Ives, President ; John F. Moffett, Cashier. Its Directors 
are W. Ives, J. F. Moffett, H. W. Eddy, J. Ives, S. Pool, J. M. Car- 
penter, A. Smith, I. A. Graves and I. L. Hunt. 

Jefferson County Savings Bank, organized 1859. Total capital 
and surplus, $1,160,000. Deposits in 1875, $314,841.92. It has 
3,200 accounts. A. M. Farwell, President ; C. N. Ely, Treasurer. 
T. H. Camp, R. Lansing, A. M. FarweU, G, Bradford, S. B. 
Upham, J. L. Baker, W. Hubbard, G. H. Sherman, F. Emerson, J. 
A. Sherman, D. W. Baldwin, R. E. Hungerford, I. H. Fisk and 
G. B. Phelps are the Trustees of the institution. 


^M. fhcro-uT/toeR/wfirc amxi-cnao^is fmcesa 

WATER TO WAr, N. V. 81 


Watertown capitalists have invested largely in the formation of 
insurance companies, and have realized handsome profits from the 
investments made. The companies now existing here have all been 
successful and prosperous, and enjoy an excellent reputation where- 
ever known. This is due to prudent, careful management, and a 
good knowledge of correct business principles. Following is a list 
of companies, with figures respecting the condition of each, taken 
from the published. statement of January i, 1876. 

The Agricultural Insurance Company was organized Febru^ 
ary 17, 1853. In is one of the oldest and most successful companies 
in existence, and is well and favorably known in nearly every farm- 
ing region in the country. It insures farm property and private 
residences only. Its capital is $200,000, assets, $1,058,040.16. It 
has received in premiums since its organization, $3,628,270.48, and 
has paid in losses, $1,823,205.95. Its total cash income in 1875 
was $541,571.29. The company pays large dividends, is admirably 
managed, and occupies a handsome marble building of its own — one 
of the finest in the State. Its Directors are : John C. Cooper, Presi- 
dent; John A. Sherman, Vice-President; Isaac Munson, Secretary; 
H. M. Stevens, Assistant Secretary ; Hiram Dewey, General Agent; 
George B. Phelps, J. M. Canfield, U. S. Gilbert, W. Ives, G. Towne, 
C. B. Fowler, E. F. Carter, J. R. Stebbins, O. R. Earl. 

The Watertown Fire Insurance Company was organized 
December 7, 1867. Its growth and prosperity has been rapid and 
constant. Its capital is $200,000, assets, April i, 1876, over $700,- 
000. It insures residences only, and has received in premiums 
$4,294,359.24; paid in losses, $2,212,354.24. Its total cash income 
in 1875 was $352,537.79. Large dividends are made, and the com- 
pany is carefully and energetically managed by the following Direc- 
tors : W. Ives, President; U. S. Gilbert, Vice-President; J. M^ 
Adams, Secretary; C. H. Waite, General Agent ; J. C. Cooper, J. 
M. Canfield, E. F. Carter, H. Dewey, J. R. Stebbins, I. Munson, 
J. A. Sherman, F. H. Munson, H. M. Stevens. The Watertown 
Fire occupies the marble building with the Agricultural. 

The Northern Insurance Company of New York, was organ- 
ized and commenced business March 23,1872. The capital stock 
of the company is $2 50,000, assets, $334,151.86. It has received in 


premiums, $567,432.82, and paid in losses, $426, 878. 67. Its Direc- 
tors have had the nerve and energy to overcome all obstacles. The 
company is ably and economically managed, and is doing a safe 
and profitable business. Its Directors are : Gilderoy Lord, Presi- 
dent; W. W, Taggart, Vice-President; John L. Baker, H. M. 
Ball, A. F. Barker, C. A. Holden, Hon. J. Mullin, P. Mundy. R. S. 
Middleton, I. P. Powers, G. H. Sherman, H. G. P. Spencer. H. 
Spicer, S. B. Upham, G. L. Woodruff. Mr. A. H. Wray is Sec- 

The Homestead Fire Insurance Company was organized 
yVpril 10, 1873, with a capital of $200,000. Although the youngest 
company, it is prudently and safely conducted, pays handsome divi- 
dends and its future promises well. It insures only farm prop- 
erty and residences. Its assets are $269,477.70. It has received 
in premiums, $134,559.86, and paid in losses, $40,481.22. Its 
Directors are : Hon. A. C. Beach, President; John C. Sterling, Vice- 
President; J. Bushnell, R. E. Hungerford. G. Bradford, B. D. 
Searles, E. K. Burnham, J. D. Ellis, G. M. Brooks, J. E. Kemp, 
W. V. V. Rosa, D. VV. Baldwin and W. W. Butterfield. Henry S. 
Munson is Secretary and Myers Thompson Treasurer. 


Watertown enjoys, as she richly deserves, a well earned reputa- 
tion, both as to the number and excellence of her hotels. No other 
city surpasses her in this respect, a fact which the traveling public 
will be found to admit. 

The Woodruff House, one of the finest hotel buildings in the 
State, was built soon after the great fire in 1849, by Norris M. 
Woodruff. It stands on the north side of Public Square, facing one 
of the parks, and presents an imposing front of 120 feet. It is five 
stories high, substantially built of brick, surmounted by a tower 
which rises over one hundred feet from the Square. Its handsome 
appearance is not excelled anywhere outside of the larger cities. 
It is handsomely furnished and is the architectural pride of the city. 
Its first floor is occupied by eight flourishing stores, and an archway 
extends through the center, constituting the principal walk and drive- 
way to the R. W. & O. R. R. depot in the rear. Messrs. Buck & 
Sanger, the proprietors, have conducted the house since 1869 and 
are extensively known as gentlemanly landlords. The attractive 


illustration shown on another page, handsome as it is, hardly does 
full justice to the fine appearance of the building. 

The Crowner House, on Court street, was built in 1853 by J. 
D. Crowner. Its main part is 87x50 feet, wing, 60x30 feet. It is 
built of brick, three stories high, and is conveniently and pleasantly 
located and offers excellent accommodations. Messrs. Solon and 
George H. Wilder are its proprietors, and are deservedly popular with 
the public. ( See illustration.) 

The American Hotel was erected soon after the fire of 1849 by 
T. W. Wheeler, on the corner of Arsenal street and Public Square, 
fronting about one hundred feet on the former, and fifty feet on the 
latter, conforming to the Paddock building adjoining. It makes an 
imposing architectural display. It is of brick, four stories high, and 
is admirably arranged lor a hotel building. It is at present conducted 
by Messrs. Buck & Sanger of the Woodruft House, and enjoys a 
wide reputation as an excellent hotel. ( See illustration.) 

The Hanchett House, on Court and Arsenal streets, is conducted 
by William C. Hanchet, and enjoys a large share of public pat- 

The Kirby House, located on Court street, is a three story brick 
building, conducted by Messrs. A. M. Harris & Son. 

The City Hotel, on Court street, recently enlarged by its pro- 
prietor, William M. Roach, and the Harris House, on Public 
Square, Helmer «&: Parish, proprietors, constitute the remainder of 
our hotels worthy oi mention. ^ 


Meetings for religious worship were held by missionaries from 
New England, almost as soon as the town began to settle. In 1802 
there were three worshipping societies in Watertown and Rutland^ 
June 3, 1803, a Congregational Church was formed at Burrville in 
in the southern part of the town, by Rev. Ebenezer Lazelle and 
meetings were held at the barn of Caleb Burnham. In the same 
manner stated meetings were held at the house of John Blevin. 
Missionaries sent out from New Hampshire and Connecticut occa- 
sionally supplied the church with preaching, among whom were Rev. 
B. Tyler, and N. Button. October 25, 181 5, Rev. Daniel Banks was 
installed as its pastor, remaining until 182 1, when the form of its 
government was changed to Presbyterian, and its location fixed at 


Watertown. This was the formation of the First Presbyterian 
Church. The first deacons were T. Redfield and Hart Massey. 
Three churches sprang from this; a Congregational in 1830, since 
become extinct, the second Presbyterian of Watertown in 1831, and 
a Congregational church at Burrville. The first religious corpora- 
tion under the general statute, was formed February 11, 181 1, under 
the name of the Religious Society of Watertown, which voted to 
build a church as soon as practicable, but the war prevented. 
Until 1 82 1 meetings were held in the brick Academy on Washing- 
ton street built in 181 1, and in the Court House. 

We present in a few following pages a brief history of each of the 
churches in Watertown with a statement of their present condition. 


The history of this church ]S so nearly identical with that stated 
above in mentioning the first religious societies of the section, 
that little remains to be said concerning its early history. During 
the pastorate of Mr. Banks, (1820), the society purchased the old 
brick Academy at the corner of Washington and Academy streets — 
which was taken down to build the Female Seminary, and erected 
in its place a stone church, the first in the village. This was dedi- 
cated June I, 182 1. In 182 1, after the form of government of the 
old Congregational Church had been changed to Presbyterian, and 
the church removed to Watertown, Rev. George S. Boardman 
was employed and July 26, 182 1, was installed as pastor of the 
church. After an effective ministry of sixteen years, he was suc- 
ceeded May 20, 1837, by Rev. Isaac Brayton who was installed 
August 31, of the same year. He continued the respected and earnest 
pastor of the church until 1864. During his ministry, in May 1850, 
the stone building was demolished and a handsome church edifice 
erected at a cost of $20,000. It was 63x100 feet and could' seat 
1,000 persons. This church was dedicated April 10, 185 1. In 
1864 Rev. J. Jermain Porter, D. D., was called to the church and 
installed as its pastor, and he still remains, respected, honored and 
loved by a large and influential society. He has been earnest, 
faithful and effective in his work and bids fair to do many years 
more of active service. During his pastorate, the church has been 
greatly improved by the addition of a fine chapel, erected in 1875, 
and is now one of the finest in Northern New York. The church is 
62x104 feet, the chapel and Sunday school room, 65x44 feet. The 






former has a seating capacity of i,ooo, and the latter 350. The 
number of communicants is 390. The Sunday school was estab- 
lished with the church, and numbers 250 schSlars. The cost ot the 
church and chapel was $26,000. The trustees of the church are 
W. W. Herrick, Norris Winslow, John Lansing, W. W. Taggart and 
J. P. Moulton. 


This society was formed October 10, 1831, as the Second Presby- 
terian. Church, by Revs. Abel L. Crandall and George S. Boardman, 
under the direction of the Watertown Presbytery, with J. W. Baker, 
H. Kitts and G. W. Knowlton as trustees. It sprang from the First 
Presbyterian Society and numbered 35 members. The church was 
first located at the corner of Factory and Mechanic streets — erected 
in 1831 at a cost of $5,500, of which Mr. Beebee of the Jefferson 
Cotton Mills contributed $3,000. Up to 1853 it had received 700 
members and its number in that year was 187. Rev. Jedediah Bur- 
chard, the celebrated revivalist, supplied the church during part of 
its first year's existence, and Rev. J. U. Peckands supplied during 
the following year. The pastors who occupied this church were 
as follows, with dates of installation : — James R. Boyd, September 
7, 1832; Marcus Smith, February 10, 1836; William E. Knox, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1844; Peter Snyder, June 20, 1848. In 1863 the Society 
sold its church building and erected a very handsome brick church 
on Stone street, near Arcade, at a cost of $18,000. Its present 
value with lot and furniture is $20,000. It is a model of church 
architecture. The size of the church is 50x70 feet; of chapel, 
30x48 feet; seating capacity of church, 500; of chapel, 150. 
The Sunday school began with the church in 1831, and now numbers 
230 scholars; the present church membership is 280. Rev. George 
D. Baker was installed as pastor June 29, 1864 ; Rev. C. Wallace, 
September 23, 1868 ; Rev. Charles M. Livingston, its present 
efficient, working pastor, September 26, 187 1. The elders of the 
church are G. W. Knowlton, G. Goulding, L. Bushnell, A. Monroe, 
M. Thompson, H. A. Bartlett, J. M. Lyon, C. H. Waite; trustees, 
J. Bushnell, W. Sargent, C. H. Waite. 


The society connected with this church was organized June 29, 
1849, and built the same year the present church building on State 


street, adjoining the High School, A partial representation of the 
cliurch may be seen in connection with the illustration given of the 
school building. " 

The Methodist Episcopal denomination organized a society in 
this city November 27, 182 1, Jonathan Cowan and H? H. Coffeen 
being among the first trustees. December 9, 1822, and December 
30, 1824, it was reorganized, and a stone church was erected soon 
afterward on Arsenal street on the site of the present Arsenal street 
school building. This church was afterward taken down, and from 
the increase of numbers it was thought best to form two new 
societies. The State street church is one of these. The present 
church edifice has been greatly improved during the present year, a 
handsome chapel having been added. The value of the church, 
chapel and parsonage is $25,000. The church is 46x90 feet; chapel, 
44x48 feet ; seating capacity of church, 600 ; of chapel, 300. The 
church has a membership of 305, and the Sunday school which has 
grown up with the church, has 170 scholars. The following are the 
pastors of the church since its organization : — Rev. James Erwin, 
January 29, 1849; E. Arnold, June 26, 1849; F. H.Stanton, 1851; 
James Erwin, 1853; L. D. White, 1855; W. S. Titus, 1857; B. 
S. Wright, 1859; W. A. Nichols, 1861 ; H. F. Spencer, 1862; O. 
C. Cole, 1863; J. D. Adams, 1865; T. Richey, 1866; W. D. 
Chase, 1868; M. D. Kinney, 1S70 ; T.Cooper, 1873; M. Gaylord 
Bullock, the present able pastor, November, 20, 1874. The trustees 
of the church are William Winch, J. W. Weeks, A. J. Peck, N. H. 
Winslow, George McOmber, John F. Moffett, Ross C. Scott and 
T. B. Townsend. 


A partial history of the early days of the Methodist denomination 
is given under the head of the State street M. E. Church. The 
following will give additional facts in reference to its early history from 
the time of the erection ol the first M. E. Chujrch in 182 1 to 185 1, 
together with a list of pastors : — 1821-2, John Dempster; 1823, B. G. 
Paddock; 1824, Hezekiah Fields; 1825 — in this year Watertown 
became a part of the Le Ray and Watertown Circuit — J. E. Brown, 
J. E. Ercanbrack and N. Salisbury, preachers; 1826, N. Salisbury 
andG. Baker, ; 1827, G. Baker and L. Edgarton ; 1828, W. W. 
Rundell and A. Hall; 1829, I. S. Mitchell — Oneida county Con- 
ference formed and Watertown district attached ; 1831, N. Salisbury ; 


'^^Z2>'} ^- ^- Coryell; 1834, S. Chase; 1835, Luther Lee; 1836-7, 
N. Salisbury-^Black River conference formed ; G. Baker, P. E. 
1838; A. D. Peck; 1839, S. Chase; 1841, L. Bowdish; 1842-3, 
H. Mattison ; 1844, William Wyatt; 1845-6, I. Stone; 1847-8, 
James Erwin. In this year the Society was divided and State street 
M. E, Church formed; 1849, George Gray; 1850-51, A. J. Phelps. 
The present church was erected in 1851, at a cost of $8,000, Size 
of church, 46xii7feet ; chapel, 46x35 feet ; seating capacity of church, 
500 ; of chapel, 200. Present number of communicants, 400 ; 
present value of church, $15,000. Sunday school established in 
182 1, with a present membership of 300. The following have been 
the pastors of the present church society : — 1852-3, L S. Bingham; 
1854-5 ; J. B. Foote ; 1856, J. W. Armstrong ; 1857-8, B. I. Die- 
fendorf; 1859-60, W. W. Hunt ; 1861-2, S. Call ; 1863-4, J. W. 

Armstrong; 1865-6-7, L S. Buigham ; 1867, Wilbur; 1868-9 

-70; S. R. Fuller; 1870, L S. Bingham; 1871-2-3, F. Widmer ; 
1874, J. C. Stewart; 1875-6, G. M. Mead. The present trustees ot 
the church are : — W. Ives, President; A. P. Baltz, G. W. Candee, 
Jeremiah Wait, Charles W. Haven, George H. Tallett, A. L. Glea- 
son and S. D. Morse. 


The Universalist Society was organized April 26. 1820, at the Court 
House. A legal society was formed January 3, 1825, of which 
James Sheldon, R. Goodale, J. M. Howell, Jona. Baker and E. 
Makepeace were first trustees. A church organization was formed 
June 21, 1823, of 14 members under Pitt Morse, the first clergyman, 
who remained until 1825, and after a year's absence, for many years 
afteiward. This society built a stone church upon the site of the 
present edifice, in 1824, at a cost of i^. 7,000, which was dedicated 
November 10, 1824, and burned September 29, 1850. The present 
church was erected in 185 1-2 at a cost of $10,000, and dedicated 
November 4, 1852. Rev. Mr. Morse was succeeded by Rev. Wil- 
liam H. Waggoner. After four years Rev. John A. Boynton was 
employed, and he was succeeded by Rev. James H. Stewart. Subse- 
quent pastors are as follows : — Reverends A. A. Thayer, E. W. 
Reynolds, I. M. Atwood, D. C. Tomlmson, and Harvey Hersey, 
the present talented incumbent. The church is situated at the east 
end of Public Square with a frontage of 66 feet, and is one of the 


best appearing churches in the city. Its audience room is 45x82 
feet with a seating capacity of about 600. Spacious school 
rooms are located in the basement. The number of communicants 
is 149, and of Sunday school scholars 188. The present trustees of the 
church are :— H. M. Ball, C. W. Sloat, and W. G. Williams. S. T. 
Woolworth is Secretary and Treasurer, 


The society connected with this church was organized by Elder 
Norman Guiteau, May 29, 1823, consisting of 17 members. The 
church society had been in existence since 1809. A society was 
formed October 13, 1827, which in 1828 erected a small wooden 
church on Factory street, which in 1837 was sold to the CathoHcs. 
During the same year the society erected a church at the east end 
of Public Square, which was dedicated January 10, 1838, and 
burned March 8, 1846. The present church was soon after erected 
on the same ground, and was in 1872 much enlarged and greatly 
modernized and improved at a cost of $5,000. " Old Father Ben- 
nett " was the first pastor, and services were held in a little school 
house on Factory street. Elder Jacob Knapp, the celebrated revi- 
valist succeeded him, and was pastor of the society when its first 
church was erected. The trees are still standing which Elder Knapp 
planted around the church. After him the pastors have been as fol- 
lows : Reverends John Miller, Charles Clark, L. T. Ford, W. J. 
Crane, John A. Nash, J. S. Holmes, (die church was built during 
Mr. Holmes' pastorate ), Chandler, Butterfield, Matteson, John 
Peddie and L. M. S. Haynes. Rev. J. W. Putnam, the present 
popular and able pastor came to the church in 1874 and its useful- 
ness and success increase. The church is 80x45 feet ; the chapel, 
25x42 feet; seating capacity of church, 500; of chapel, 150. The 
number of communicants is 250, and the Sunday school formed in 
1833 numbers 150 scholars. The present value of the church is 
^'jt, ''t,oc*:>^*t The trustees of the church are : — D. W. Dickerson, Dex- 
'SiWllSer, H. E. Parsons, Dr. C. M. Johnson and J. G. Harbottle. 
C. A. Waterman is Treasurer, and J. G. Harbottle Clerk. 


■-^hc^^f,^ -Episcopal service ever held in Watertown, was performed 
early in 181 2, at the school house on the site of the present Univer- 
salist church, by Rev. Daniel Nash of Otsego county. In 1826 it 



I— I 







WATER TO tVN, N. F. 89 

was again performed by Bishop Hobart in the Presbyterian church, 
and the same year Rev. Wihiam Lynn Keese, stationed at Brown- 
ville, preached occasionally here and at Sackets Harbor. A legal 
organization was effected May 31, 1828, under Rev. Joshua M. 
Rogers of Turin, who continued every fourth Sunday for several 
months. In 1829 Rev. Hiram Adams was permanently engaged 
to supply Watertown and Sackets Harbor. Services were first held 
in the Court House. The first church edifice was built in 1832-3, 
and was consecrated September 18, 1833. A Sunday school was 
established in 1829, commencing with 16 scholars and 2 teachers. 
The church was destroyed by fire May 13, 1849, ^""^^ ^'f^Y ^4? 1850, 
the corner stone of the present church building was laid. It is 
gothic in design and of the following dimensions: nave, 100x50 
feet; chancel, 25x21 feet. Its cost was $i6,ooc, and its seating 
capacity is from 800 to 1,000. It was consecrated by Bishop 
De Lancy, Jan. 23, 185 1. The number of communicants (1876) is 
375 ; number of Sunday school scholars, 225. Its present esteemed 
and diligent rector is Rev. L. R. Brewer. The following is a list of 
the rectors of the church and the years of their ministry : — Revs. 
Hiram Adams, 1829-30; Rev. Mr. Salmon, 1831-2 ; Rev. Mr. 
Hickox, 1835-6; Rev. Charles Ackley, 1837-9; Rev. John A. Fish, 
1839-44; Rev. Dr. WiUiam M. Carmichael, 1845-6; Rev. Levi W. 
Norton, 1846-53; Rev. Morgan Hills, 1853-7 • 1^^^'- Dr. Theodore 
Babcock, 1857-72; Rev. L. R. Brewer, 1872. Wardens — F.Emer- 
son, A. H. Sawyer. Vestrymen — H H . Babcock, F. T. Story, E. Q. 
Sewall, K. Hannahs, W. H. Moore, H. W. Shead, Joseph Mullin, E. 
L. Paddock. 


The Society comprising this church, was formed July 21, 1867^ 
and for many months held its sessions at the Court House. Rev. 
W. H. MiUburn, the " blind preacher," supplied the society for some 
time, and he was followed by Rev. W. A. Ely. In 1868, the school 
house on Sterling street was purchased, and transformed into Grace 
Chapel, and has since been occupied by the society. It is a hand- 
some building situated in a pleasant part of the city and has a seat- 
ing capacity of 250. There are 152 communicants. A Sunday 
school was organized with the society and now contains 102 
scholars. The present value of the church and rectory is $15,500. 
Rev. John A. Stanton was the first legular rector, acting from 


October 4, 1868, to April 14, 1874. He was succeeded by Rev. 
W. H. Hopkins who served from December i, 1874, to December 
I, 1875. Rev. Wm. L. Parker is the present acceptable rector, com- 
mencing his rectorship March i, 1876. The following are the 
officers of the church : — Wardens — J. Blood, F. W. Hubbard. Ves- 
trymen — J. F. Starbuck, C. D. Wright, G. A. Bagley, G. H. Sher- 
man, L. H. Brown, A. H. Hall, A. H. Herrick and L. J. Dorwin. 

ST. Patrick's church. 
This fine Roman Catholic Church is situated on Massey street, 
near Arsenal. The edifice was begun about 1856 by Rev. P, 
McNulty. He was succeeded by Rev. James Hogan who com- 
pleted the church, and who still remains its devoted, able and highly 
respected pastor. The church w\as incorporated under the State 
laws in 1870. It is built of brick, is 150x80 feet and has a seating 
capacity of over 1,000. The value of the church and parsonage is 
about $40,000. The number of communicants is 1,200, and the 
Sunday school numbeis 200 scholars. Its present trustees are Bishop 
E. P. Wadhams, J. Mackay, V. G., Rev. James Hogan, pastor, 
John J. Hartigan and Edward E. Kennedy. Before the erection of 
this church, services were held in the Catholic Church on Factory 
street, which was bought of the Baptists by the Roman Catholics 
in 1838. Rev. Michael Gilbride was the first resident priest. He 
was succeeded by Rev. P. Gillick, Rev. R. O. Dowd, Revs. McFar- 
land and Fenniley. 

ST. Mary's church. 

This church is located on Factory street and was built by the 
Baptists in 1828, and sold in 1838 to the Roman Catholic society. 
When the latter erected their new church (St. Patrick's), St. Mary's 
was for many years occupied by the French Catholics. It is at 
at present unoccupied. 


If the intelHgence of a community is to be judged by the number 
and character of its newspapers — " the great levers which move the 
world," then Watertown and Jefferson county must take a front rank. 
That distinctive American feature, the establishment of newspapers, 
exhibited itself early among the intelligent founders of our city, and 
within ten years after its settlement, a weekly newspaper was estab- 
lished here by Henry Coffeen the pioneer publisher of this northern 


country. Its name was the " American Eagle," and although the 
original old bird is just now in the full prime of his centennial glory, 
and is flapping his wings over a prosperous and united country more 
proudly and energetically than ever, the newspaper above named, 
established in 1809, lived but three years, when it changed its name 
and proprietor. Since that year Watertown has seen over thirty 
different newspapers, daily, weekly, tri- weekly, and monthly rise and 
fall in her midst. The longest lived of those now extinct, was the 
" Freeman," established January 27, 1824, by W. Woodward, which 
lived nine years. After that came "Reporters," "Spectators," and 
" Advocates," " Posts," " Republicans " and " Censors; " and " Suns" 
and " Constellations " rose in energy and sank in unpaid subscrip- 
tions. The " Independent Republican," established in 18 19, lived 
six years, and the " North American," ( 1835 ) four years. The 
" Genius of Philanthropy " flourished in 1828, but there is no sub- 
sequent record that the " genius " has since risen to haunt the news- 
papers of the present day. The " Anti-Masonic Record " appeared 
in 1828, but was short lived and the " Sun " advocated the same 
creed in 1830 for a brief period. 


The "Journal," was established by Joel Greene in 1846 but 
did not " come to stay." In the same year Hon. Ambrose W. 
Clark (afterward a Representative in Congress, i860, and subse- 
quently U. S. Consul at Valparaiso, Chili ), established the " North- 
ern New York Journal, " which for many years was the leading 
newspaper in this section. It was merged into the " Reformer " 
in 1869. 


The newspapers of 1876, of which Watertown has just reason to 
be proud, are as follows : 

The Watertown " Reformer," weekly, was established August 29, 
1850, by L. Ingalls, A. H. Burdick and L. M. Stowell, as the " New 
York Reformer." The late Solon Massey, a son of Hart Massey 
one of the first settlers, and the author of the famous articles of 
local biography and history over the signature of " A Link in the 
Chain," giving early reminisences of Watertown and its pioneers, 
was one of the editors of the " Reformer." It was independent in 
politics when founded, and devoted to temperance and reform. Its 
politics became Republican in the Freeniont campaign of 1856, and 


continue so to this day, Mr. John A. Haddock, now one of the 
first job printers ni Philadelphia, and the late Hon. L. J. Bigelow, 
were connected with this paper. It is now published by B. Brock- 
way & Sons, and is one of the largest and foremost among the 
weekly papers of the State. It has a circulation of over 3,000. 
The paper is published in one of the most complete of newspaper 
buildings, on Arcade street, four stories high, of brick, and admirably 
arranged. Hon. B. Brockway, one of the most experienced editors 
in the State, formerly connected with the New York Tribune, and 
for many years a resident of Watertown, is editor and proprietor, 
Mr. J. W. Brockway has general charge of the various departments^ 
and Mr. H. A. Brockway acts as cashier, and presides in the count- 
ing room. Mr. George C. Bragdon is city, and Mr. L. L. Pratt, 
news editor. The establishment has a bindery connected with it 
in charge of Mr. Robert J. Holmes. The handsome press work of 
this pamphlet and its general mechanical arrangement is largely due 
to the skill and " patience " of the general superintendent, Mr. J. W. 
Brockway. Mr. C. Bracy has executed the press work, and Mr. 
A. S. Moffat has attended to the composition. 

The " Watertown Daily Times " was established in 1850 by L. 
Ingalls, B. Brockway and I. Beebee, as the daily " Reformer" which 
name was changed in 1870. It is now published by B. Brockway 
&: Sons, and has a circulation of 1,200. The establishment does an 
extensive job printing and binding business — steam is used, and 40 
hands employed. The capital is $40,000 and a business of $35,000 
is annually done. (See illustration and advertisement.) 

The Watertown " Re- Union," Democratic, comes down from an 
old line. The " Freeman," 1824, was changed in 1837 to the 
" Jeffersonian." The " Democratic Union" was established in 1846. 
In 1854 these two papers were merged and called the "Jefferson 
County Union." In 1865 the name "Jefferson Democrat" was 
assumed, which was changed to its present title June 28, 1866, 
Alvin Hunt, of good name, and Mr. George Moss, now of the New 
York Express, were connected with this paper. It is now edited 
and published by W. C. Haven, Esq., is a large, eight-page weekly 
paper and has a circulation of 3,000. Wm. C. Plumb is city editor. 

The Watertown " Morning Despatch " is the daily paper connected 
with the above establisment. It was established June 24, 1872, by 


jM.mow UT/ioQitAJ'mc caur csaoxvrs f/iocersi} 


George Moss and W. A. Boon. It claims a circulation of 1,200. 
These papers are published in the large and convenient brick building 
illustrated elsewhere, situated on Arcade street. A large job print- 
ing business is done at this office. Capital" $20,000, — 20 hands are 
employed, and $20,000 worth of work is annually turned out. The 
presses are also run by steam. (See illustrattion and advertisement.) 

The " Watertown Post," weekly, was founded in 1870 by Geo. R. 
Hanford and Jos. H.Wood. Sept. i, 1873, the establishment passed 
into the hands of Hon. Lotus Ingalls ( Member of Assembly, 1876) 
formerly of the " Times" and " Reformer," who has been identified 
with the newspaper history of the city for over twenty-five years, 
and who is now its editor and proprietor. It is Republican in 
politics, and claims a circulation of over 5,000. The '• Post'' 
building is of brick, spacious and well arranged, located on Arsenal 
street. The capital invested is $20,000, and $20,000 worth of job 
printing and book binding is turned out yearly. Twenty hands are 
employed, and steam power is used. 

It is but just to the above named newspapers to say that they are 
all zealous and untiring in their efforts to do whatever is in their 
power to advance the best mterests of Watertown. The Association 
is indebted to them for valuable aid in keeping public opinion 
aroused to the importance of using every endeavor to add to the 
prosperity of our city. 

Messrs. Kenyon tSc Holbrook publish the " Christian Witness," a 
monthly periodical, for the Y. M. C. A. They are located in the 
Agricultural Insurance Go's building, and have a fine and complete 
job printing establishment. They do a business amounting to 
$25,000 per annum, on a capital of $12,000. The business was 
established in 1872. Steam is used, and 23 hands employed. 



Watertown is well organized in the way of societies, as the following 
list proves. Most of the societies named are flourishing and suc- 


Watertown Commandery, No. ii. Knights Templar, A. H. Saw- 
yer, E. C ; T. C. Chittenden, Recorder. Membership 200. 

Watertown Chapter, No. 59, R. A. M., T. C. Chittenden, M. E. 
H. P. ; J. A. Quencer, Secretary. Membership 140. 

Watertown Lodge, No. 49, F. & A. M., Louis C. Greenleaf, 
W. M.; Lewis F. Phillips, Secretary. Membership 275. 

I. o. OF o. F. 

Montezuma Encampment, No. 27, Clark Wetherby, C. P; Robert 
J. Holmes, Scribe. Membership 70. 

Jefferson Union Lodge, No. 124, Merrill L.Raymond, N. G ; 
Wm. H. Maston, Secretary. Membership 140. 

Watertown City Lodge, No. 291, W. M. Penniman, N. G ; E. S. 
Allen, Secretary. Membership 85. 


Watertown Lodge, No. 90, I. O. of G. T; Lysander H. Brown, 
W. C. T ; Walter Rose, Secretary. 

Father Mathew Total Abstmence Benevolent Society, James 
McManus, President; James Ward, Secretary. 


35th Battalion, i6th Brigade, N. G., S. N. Y., A. J. Casse, Lieut. 
Col. Commanding. 

Company A, 46 men ; Captain, John Ward. 
Company B, 30 men; Captain, Fred. W. Simpson. 
Company C, 60 men ; Captain, James R. Miller. 


Jefferson Sportsmens' Club, Dr. Wm. R. Trowbridge, Pres. ; A. 
M. Kenyon, Secretary. 

State Park Club, Chas. S. Hart, President; A. W. Wheelock, 

Field and Forest Club, C. Partello, President ; W. H. Maston, 

Watertown, n. v. 



Watertown Republican Club, Dr. H. M. Stevens, President; F. 
H. Remington, Secretary. 

Republican County Committee, R. B. Biddlecom, Chairman; 
W. D. V. Rulison, Secretary. 

Democratic County Committee, Levi H. Brown, Chairman ; W. 
S. Carlisle, Secretary. 

Republican City Committee, C. R. Skinner, Chairman; L. C. 
Greenleaf, Secretary. 

Democratic City Committee, W. F. Porter, Chairman; W. S. 
Carlisle, Secretary. 


Amateur Orchestra, John W. Miller, Leader. 

Watertown Choral Union, Jno. C. Knowlton, President; M. B. 
Sloat, Secretary. 

Davis Sewing Machine Band, Henry M. Lewis, Leader; N. S. 
Snell, Secretary. 


Watertown Manufacturers' Aid Association, Gen. B. Winslow, 
President ; C. R. Skinner, Corresponding Secretary. 

•Brookside Cemetery Association, Hon. Joseph Mullin, President; 
A. L. Upham, Secretary. 

Jefferson County (Pomona) Grange; Luke Fulton Master; S. R. 
Pratt Secretary. 

Watertown Dairymiens' Board of Trade, C. C. Hardy, President ; 
W. R. Skeels, Secretary. 

Watertown Base Ball Association, W. D. V. Rulison, President ; 
Chas. A. Settle, Secretary. 

Sovereigns of Industry, Wm. A. Portt, President ; W. A. Lyttle, 

Watertown League of Friendship, Wm. A. Portt, H. M.; W. A. 
Lyttle, Secretary. 

Watertown Grange, No. 7. L. D. Olney, Master; William O. 
Tolman, Secretary. 

W^averly Association, (Social) A. M. Knickerbocker, President ; 
Robert P. Oakes, Secretary. 

Young Men's Christian Association, Dr. C. M. Johnson, President, 
W. M. Penniman, Secretary. 


Jefferson County Agricultural Society, Elliot Makepeace, Presi- 
dent; W. R. Skeels, Secretary. 

Jefferson County Bar Association. 

Catholic Benevolent Society, Henry Boulter, President; James 
Carlan, Secretary. 

Knights of St. Patrick, John J. Hartigan, President; James 
O'Brien, Secretary. 

Watertown River Park Asssciation, John C. McCartin Presi- 
dent ; J. Stears, Jr., Secretary. 

St. John Baptiste Benevolent Society, E. DeMarce, President; 
John Picket, Secretary. 

Board of Fire Underwriters, D. M. Bennett, President ; Charles B. 
Fowler, Secretary. 

Jefferson County Orphan Asylum, Hon. Willard Ives, President ; 
Robert Lansing, Secretary. 


Statistics will prove that Watertown is one of the healthiest cities 
in the country. Its climate is pure and genial, the temperature being 
modified and regulated by Lake Ontario bounding the county on the 
west. The city is 450 feet above tide water and 235 teet above Lake 
Ontario, giving the air a life-giving quality unequaled. The rigor ot 
the winter months with their pure, clear air, is as beneficial to 
health as the delightful, semi-tropical summer season which prevails. 
The average summer temperature is 65 " and the average for winter 
is 20°. It gives to the productions of the soil the same growth and 
vigor which the same influences exert upon individuals. The city 
is subject to no prevailing diseases, is well drained through the 
assistance of Black River, and its sanitary condition is well regulated 
by an efficient board of health. The mortality rate in 1875 was 
only one in seventy, or about 14 to every 1,000, and in the county 
only one in 90. 


As a matter of local interest we make the merest mention of the 
Caverns in the Black River limestone. These were undoubtedly 
formed by the action of water, and like the roc:k itself, are very old. 

The largest of these caverns when first discovered, was found to 
be beautifully draped with curtains of milk-white limestone, the 




result of acidulated water passing through cracks and fissures of the 
limestone eating away its sides. When the water, thus charged, 
reaches the open air, or passes into a draught, it becomes aereated, 
and gives off as a gas the acid which helped to hold the carbonate of 
lime in solution and the result presents itself in sheets, stalactites, or 

The roofs of all our caverns are coated with an encrustation of 
this carbonate, but fine specimens are no longer attainable. The 
larger cave is no longer easy of access, its mouth having been par- 
tially walled up. Several parties have however, recently explored it, 
but without discovering anything new. 

Further up the river, just beyond Prospect Hill, are two small 
caverns, easy of access, one having both openings on the stream, 
the other running back some ten or twelve rods, with an arch nearly 
half way, and abruptly terminating. The latter cave is beautifully 
water-groved, ellipsoidal in shape, with a narrow channel cut down 
like the stem to a lenf, which the explorer has to walk like the 
Colossus of Rhodes. 

On the south side of the bank of the river is the celebrated ice 
cave, which is housed in and used for an immense lager beer refrig- 
erator. In the hottest days of summer the thermometer registers 
30° at the mouth of the cave. Ice remains in it until late in the 
Autumn, and explorations have been made in it to the depth of five 
hundred feet. 

About two miles down the river at the " Glen," is another similar 
cave, near the river bank, with the added attractions of picturesque 
scenery. During the hottest days of summer the place is delight- 
fully cool, and is much visited. 


The first plan of a public cemetery was accepted Oct. 27, 1823, 
and in December, 1825, the lots, one rod square each, were balloted 
for, each taxable inhabitant being entitled to one share. This cem- 
etery was located on Arsenal street, west of the railroad. The old- 
est Catholic cemetery is situated adjacent to it. Neither of these is 
now used. 

Calvary Cemetery (Catholic) is situated in a pleasant and spacious 
grove about two miles up the river and near its south bank. It was 
first used in 1869. 


Brookside Cemetery is a quiet and beautiful spot about three miles 
south of the city. It is located in a valley, and seems an especially 
appropriate place for the purpose for which it is used. It occupies 
about seventy acres of land, and abounds in hills and vales and ro- 
mantic ravines. Much of it remains with its natural growth of trees, 
and is crossed by a handsome stream. Beautiful in itself by nature, 
in situation and surroundings, the laying out of walks and drives has 
added greatly to its natural beauty. Its avenues are tastefully 
planned, and great care is bestowed upon the proper improvement 
of the sj^ot. It contains a large number of fine monuments, many 
of them of more than ordinary beauty and excellence. 


The assessed valuation of real estate in the city of Watertown for 
1875, was $5,496,225, of real estate $3,460,300, making a total 
taxable valuation of $8,956,525. These figures will no doubt be 
increased by the assessment of the present year. It is safe to assume 
that the assessment is a just one, and puts Watertown on record as 
one of the wealthiest cities in the State. Perhaps other cities, many 
times larger than ours, and no doubt more wealthy, can explain why 
this occurs. It is perhaps a question for assessors to decide when 
cities disagree. The expenses of the city government in 1875 were 
$72,953.62 — less than one per cent, of the taxable property — and 
it is expected that even this low figure will be reduced for 1876. 
Every effort is being put torth by city ofiicers to reduce expenses and 
consequent taxation to the lowest figure consistent with reasonable 
progress, and every department of the city is now conducted upon 
the strictest economy to the end that the burueii of taxation may be 
as light as possible. 

The aggregate of real and personal p-ropeity in Jcfterson county 
reported in 1875, was $33,942,416. The state tax has been reduced 
by the recent Slate Legislature to three mills, a reduction of one- 
half from the previous year, and there is a general feelmg that the 
era of high taxation has passed away, and that economy in the con- 
duct of public affairs is to be the basis of the future financial pro- 
gresss of the city, county and state. 




Watertown is so well supplied with elegant, tasteful and costly 
private dwellings that any attempt to describe or particularize would 
appear insidious, and would unnecessarily enlarge this work. It is 
perhaps enough to state that our dwellings compare favorably wdth 
our public buildings, and are too numerous too name in this connec- 
tion. They are the admiration of visiting strangers, and the city 
justly deserves the good reputation she bears in this direction, among 
all who have seen her. They are well distributed throughout the 
city — Washington street perhaps taking precedence in numbers. 
After her come Clinton, State, Stone, Sterling, Sherman, Ten Eyck, 
Massey, and Paddock streets. Hundreds of fine residences adorn 
these handsome avenues, well supplied with lawn and shade and 
fountains and flowers. They deserve any good thing that can be 
said about them. 


Although a general depression in business has prevailed through- 
out the country for the past year or more, nearly one hundred new 
buildings have been erected in this city during 1875 and 1876, 
including many elegant dwellings now in process of erection. 


The names of most of those good men who founded Watertown 
and contributed so much to her early growth and success appear in 
various portions of this book, under the different subjects treated. 
They need no recapitulation here. They were sturdy, honest hard 
working men, and their names are written no less plainly on the 
monuments at Brookside, than they are engraved upon the land- 
marks which stand everywhere as proofs of their enterprise. May 
their posterity profit by their example. 

The names of those of our citizens who are now prominent in 
keeping up the progress of Watertown, *;are also mentioned elsewhere 
in connection with industries and trades which we have sought to 
describe fairly if not fully. We need not repeat or classify them here. 

100 WATER TOWN, N. Y. 

1827 — 1876. 

As showing the progress of half a century the following figures 
may be interesting : 

A census of Watertown village taken in 1827 gave a population 
of 2,039. There were 321 buildings of all kinds, of which 224 
were dwellings. There were three churches and seven schools and 
the total number of stores and trades represented at that time was 
one hundred. 

In 1876 there is a population of over 11.000, over 2,000 dwell- 
ings, 200 buildings of other kinds, 10 churches, 5 banks, 9 flourish- 
ing schools, and the total number of trades and occupations repre- 
sented cannot fall much below 600. 


Watertown being so readily accessible to the metropolis enjoys the 
luxury of first class theatrical entertainments, and the advantage of 
one ot the best halls in the State for this purpose. Many of the 
very best of metropolitan actors and companies visit this city and 
good entertainments are always very sure of a generous support. 
Poor ones are not. Among recent names which have appeared on 
attractive bills are those of Edwin Adams, John T. Raymond as 
" Col. Sellers." and the inimitable Sothern, as " Lord Dundreary." 

The Young Mens' Christian Association give every season a first 
class course of lectures, embracing the best public speakers on the 
stage. They are sure of a welcome. 

The citizens provide each season for open air concerts in the park 
on Public Square, during the summer season on Saturday evenings 
by the Davis Sewing Machine Band, one of the finest in the country. 
The concerts are listened to by admiring audiences numbered by 
thousands, and form an interesting feature of mid-summer social 

A Normal Music School was established here in 1875, continuing 
one month. It is to be repeated in 1876, and bids fair to become 
permanent. The best musical talent in the country is connected 
with it. 

For the past two seasons a base ball tournament, continuing a 
week or more has been given under the auspices of an Association 
and much pleasure if not profit has resulted. 









The Watertown River Park Associaton usually give one or two 
" meetings," giving enjoyment to a large class who appreciate the 
beauties of equine speed. The Association owns a fine track. 

The Jefferson County Agricultural Society holds its annual fairs on 
its spacious grounds in this city, which need no explanation or 


Two telegraph lines enter Watertown — the Montreal Telegraph 
Co., extending through Canada, and connecting at Oswego with the 
Western Union, and the Dominion Telegraph Co., also operating 
largely in Canada, and connecting with the Alantic and Pacific Co. 
Dexter Van Ostrand is Superintendent of the New York division of 
the first named line, with headquarters in this city. Mr. William 
C. Hanchett is the manager of the Watertown office, located in 
Washington Hall. This company is liberal in its dealings and bears 
an excellent reputation. Its line extends along the Rome Water- 
town & Ogdensburgh railroad and its branches. 

Mr. J. E. Rowe has charge of the affairs of the latter company here 
and its business is conducted with carefulness and punctuality. 

Taggarts & IDm.vW JP'Chper Mill unci JPujper JFlour SuKli. Manufuet&r-^, 



The Watertown Spring Wagon Company's Manufactory is 
located in the Winslow Industrial Building on Factory Square. 
The building, which is one of the largest and best appointed in this 
section of the State, was erected in 1870, by Hon. N. Winslow, and 
was for several years occupied by the Davis Sewing Machine Co. 
The building is 283x55 feet, four stories high, and built of brick. 
The blacksmith shop is located at the left of the main building. 
The Spring Wagon Co. was organized in December, 1875, with a 
capital of $100,000. The establishment now employs 50 men, and 
expect to turn out during the present year, about 3,000 spring 
wagons, which find a ready sale in all parts of the country. They 
are made of the most durable material and their good reputation is 
based on their lightness and strength. The manufactory is situated 
near the shore of Black River, commanding a fine water power — 
over 200 horse. The industry is a credit to the city, and will become 
one of its most successful institutions. The people of Watertown 
were called upon to decide in April 1876, whether this company 
should leave the city, or remain in it. They showed their good 
sense and appreciation of a real benefit by promptly taking the 
amount of stock required to retain it, and the company is on a 
sound basis. Mayor Levi H. Brown is President. A. Palmer 
Smith, Vice-President; and Jerome Bushnell, Secretary and Treas- 
urer. The directors are Hon. A. C. Beach, Hon. N. Winslow, W. 
G. WiUiams, E. M. Gates, C. A. Clark, R. Marcy, G. L. Davis and 
the officers first named. (See illustration and advertisement.) 

The Davis Sewing Machine Company's manufactory is situated 
on Sewall's Island near the finest water power on the river. The 
company was organized in 1868, with a capital of $150,000, which 
has since been increased to $500,000. It formerly occupied the 
building on Factory Square, now used by the Watertown Spring 
Wagon Company. In 1875 the company erected a building of its 
own which it now occupies. The main building is two stories with 
attic, and is 175x40 feet. The wing is of the same height and 
is 40x30 feet. The office is one story, 50x30 feet, all the build- 
ings being of brick. The company manufactured in 1875 
$300,000 worth of machines, all of which found ready sale. The 
number of employees is 175. The works are driven by water 

104 WATER TOWN, N. V. 

power, over 50 horse being used. The assets of the company are 
about $1,000,000. No royalty is now paid on the machines. The 
company has branch offices at Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, 
Milwaukee, San Francisco, Erie, Pa., Ravenna, Ohio, and other 
points, and is now thoroughly represented at the Centennial Exhi- 
bition of 1876 with some of the finest machines in the world. The 
The machines have an excellent reputation for simplicity and utility. 
The present officers are as follows : Hon. Willard Ives, President ; 
Hon. George A. Bagley, Vice-President; Levi A. Johnson, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer. Directors — C. D. Wright, H. W. Eddy, N. 
Winslow, R. Van Namee, H. M. Stevens, A. H. Sawyer, J. F. 
Moffett^ J. M. Carpenter, G. B. Massey, and L. P. Hawes of New 
York. (See illustration and advertisement.) 

The Watertown Steam Engine Company, occupies the prem- 
ises formerly used by C. B. Hoard in the manufactory of fire arms 
(during the rebellion), and as a machine shop, on the north side of 
the river on Mill and Moulton streets, and near the suspension 
bridge. The company commenced business in 1866 with a capital 
of $40,000, which has since been increased to $200,000. It occupies 
35,000 square feet of flooring for machinery besides large boiler and 
blacksmith shops, store houses, etc. It employs 100 men, and manu- 
factures yearly about 400 steam engines and saw mills, making a 
specialty at the present time of agricultural engines which have an 
excellent reputation wherever used. The company uses annually 
1,000 tons of cast and wrought iron, a large portion of the cast iron 
being of that produced in this vicinity. The sales reach nearly 
every State in the Union, the Canadian Provinces, Cuba, etc. The 
officers of the company are as follows : Charles A. Sherman, Presi" 
dent; D. W. Baldwin, Secretary and Treasurer. The Directors 
are the officers, with I. H. Fisk, T. H. Camp, I. P. Powers, G. Brad- 
ford and R. E. Hungerford. (See illustration and advertisement. 

Knowlton Brothers' Paper Mill, located on Mill street, at the 
first bridge leading to Beebee's Island, occupies the site of the paper 
mill first erected in 1808. The business was conducted for many 
years by Knowlton & Rice. The main building is 130x60 feet, 
three stories, high, besides basement and attic. An artesian well, 
drilled one hundred feet into the rock, in 1856 is still in use at this 
building, giving the purest water obtainable. The mill was formerly 
occupied in manufacturing writing paper exclusively, but now con- 











WATER TOWN, N. Y. 105 

fines itself to the production of book and colored papers. The 
quality oi the paper made is nowhere surpassed. The paper upon 
which this pamphlet is printed was manufactured at this mill. It is 
one of the oldest and soundest institutions of the kind in Watertown. 
A magnificent water power, equal to 200 horse, drives the machin- 
ery — fifty persons are employed, and three tons of fine paper are 
turned out daily. Messrs. George W. Jr., and John C. Knowlton 
are its present owners and efiicient managers. (See illustration.) 

Taggarts & Davis' Paper Mill and Paper Flour Sack Manufac- 
tory, is located on the north side of the river, about sixty rods below 
the lower bridge. The main building and wing are of stone, both 
three stories high, the former 200x75 feet, and the latter 75x40 feet. 
The pulp mill on the left is 46x30 feet, two stories, and the store 
house on the right 120x30 feet, i^ stories. The building as shown 
in this work, was erected by W. H. Angel in 1843-4-5, and was first 
used as a flouring mill and distillery. It was used for a few years 
as a cotton and woolen mill. Thirteen water wheels are used to 
drive the machinery, four of 100, and nine of from 30 to 50 horse- 
power each. The business amounts to $300,000 per year. About 
5,000 pounds each of news and manilla paper are manufactured 
daily, and from the latter about 30,000 paper sacks are made. The 
mill gives employment to about 75 persons. The firm consists of 
Messrs. W. W. Taggart, B. B. Taggart and the estate of O. R. Davis. 
(See illustration and advertisement.) 

The Union Mills are located on Mill street, and occupy a por- 
tion of the site of the first mill erected in the city by Jonathan 
Cowan. The present building was erected in 1835, by P. C. Moul- 
ton, and is now conducted by H. W. Shead and I. A. Graves. It is 
of stone, 65x75 feet, and four stories high. The mach' lery is run 
by 7 turbine water wheels, representing about 120 norse power. 
The capacity of the mill is 200 barrels of flour per day besides cus- 
tom work. The mill is supplied with the La Croix machinery and 
makes a specialty of flour. Four men are employed. 

H. H. Babcock & Sons' Pump Manufactory, occupies extensive 
buildings on the west side of Factory Square. The business was 
established in 1847 ; capital, $60,000 ; value of manufactured goods 
in 1875, $50,000. with capacity for twice the amount of business. 
The works are run by water, 80 horse power, ten men are employed, 
and 500,000 feet of white pine lumber were used in 1875. The 
^ 14 


sales are mostly in the Eastern and Middle States. It is one of the 
most flourishing industries of Watertown ; conducted by Messrs. H. 
H., H. P. and G. H. Babcock. 

The Watertown Paper Company's building is located on Sew- 
all's Island at the upper dam. This company was incorporated in 
1864, with a capital of $20,000; gives employment to 25 men and 
use 150 horse power of water. The main building was burned in 
1874, re-built of brick in 1875, ^'^^^ ^^^^ company turns out 900 tons 
of news paper per annum. The main portion of the mill is of brick, 
52x108 feet, two stories and basement. The wing is of wood 25x80 
feet, and one story. 

The Hitchcock Lamp Company was incorporated April 19, 
1872, with a capital of $15,000, which has been increased to $35,- 
000. The object of the Company is to manufacture lamps for rail- 
roads, shipping, manufactories, residences etc., burning animal, fish, 
vegetable and kerosene oils. Nine men are now employed in per- 
fecting special tools and elaborate machinery for conducting the 
work. These are now being completed, and the company will soon 
commence the regular work of manufacturing. The works are 
located on Factory street, near Mill, and run by water, 20 horse 
power, and will give employment when in operation, to over 25 
men. Much of the machinery already completed is of the finest 
and most powerful description. John M. Sigourney is President; 
F.T.Story, Vice President ; T. C. Chittenden, Secretary; J. A. 
Lawyer, Treasurer; Robert Hitchcock, Superintendent. (See adver- 

Graves & Van Doren, manufacture sash, blinds and doors, and 
do a general business. The business was established in 1875 ; capi- 
tal, $13,000 ; 8 persons employed; 30 horse power used; value of 
product of 1875, $8,000; 100,000 feet of lumber used. The build- 
ing is on Mill street, 32x62 feet, of brick and 4 stories high. (See 

V. P. Kimball's pearl barley mill, near Factory Square, was 
established in 184.7 j capital, $10,000 ; employs 4 hands; uses 150 
horse power of water; produced $40,000 worth in 1875, "^^'^^^ 
capacity tor three times that amount. The same gentleman uses 
$4,000 capital in the manufacture of straw board, established m 
1874; employs five men and produced $3,000 worth in 1875. 

WATER TOWN, N. Y. 107 

The Excelsior Mill, on River street, near Mill, was built in 
1845, t>y Moulton & Symonds. It is now owned and conducted by 
Allen H. Herrick. Capital, $20,000; employs from 4 to 7 men; 
manufactured $25,000 worth of flour and feed in 1875 and has 
capacity for $75,000 worth. It is run by six turbine water wheels 
representing 100 horse power, and is located near one of the safest 
and best powers on the river. 

Bagley & Sewall's extensive machine shop and foundry is situ- 
ated on Beebee's Island at the second dam, and occupies about 
30,000 square feet of flooring besides store houses etc. The business 
was established by George Goulding in 1823. The capital is about 
$75,000. Thirty persons are employed and 80 horse power used. 
600 tons of iron are used annually. The product consists of steam 
engines, sewing machine castings, mill gearing. Green's rotary 
pump, etc., and a business of nearly $100,000 is annually done. 

The Cotton Yarn Mill, operated by the Remington Paper Co., 
is situated on the south side of the river near the upper dam. It 
was established in 1875 ^^"^ ^ capital of $15,000. Forty persons 
are employed, 60 horse power used, and the mill is capable of pro- 
ducing $30,000 worth per annum. The product is shipped to New 

The Remington Paper Co., occupies fine buildings on Sewall's 
Island, about 100 feet square, built of brick. The business was 
established in 1865, with a capital of $84,400. Seventy persons are 
employed, 800 horse power used, and in 1875 the business amounted 
to $220,000. The company manufactures newspaper wholly, using 
in 1875 400,000 feet of spruce and poplar lumber. About 5 
tons per day is the average product, shipped mostly to New York 
and San Francisco. The Trustees are, A. D. Remington, President ; 
George P. Folts, Secretary, and F. Emerson. The business is one 
of the most extensive in Watertown. 

Wjmte & HuYCK, on Newell street, are re-fitting a large stone 
building for the manufacture of woolen cloth of all kinds ; will use 
50 horse power and employ 10 persons. 

Cataract Mills, built by P. C. Moulton, in 1839, business now 
owned by E. Settle & Son, established 187 1, capital $20,000. Fifty 
horse power is used and the business of 1875 amounted to $75,000. 
The capacity of the mill is over 15,000 barrels of flour annually 
besides custom work. It is situated at the north end of supension 


NiLL & Jess, confectionery, cigars, and bakery, established 1863, 
capital, ^"35,000. Employ 25 persons, use 10 horse power, and did 
a business of $75,000 in 1875. Works on Factory Square. 

Hills &: Hunn, furniture, business established in 1865, capital, 
$15,000. Employ 13 men, use 20 horse power, and in 1875 ^^^ ^ 
business of $35,000. Works on Beebee's Island. 

York & Moore, sash, doors, blinds, etc., business established 
1870, capital $10,000. Employ 20 hands, use 50 horse power, and 
did $20,000 worth of business in 1875, using 100,000 feet of lumber. 
Works at north end of suspension bridge. (See adv.) 

Sloat, Greenleaf & Go's lumber yard and planing mill on Mill 
street, (Beebee's Island), was established in 1872 ; employs 12 men, 
a capital of $15,000, and uses 60 horse power of water. (See adv.) 

George G. Ghambers, Arsenal street, manufactures cigars, 
employs a capital of $11,000, 13 men, business established April 
1875, '^^^^ made $22,000 worth of goods in 1875, mostly for local 
trade. (See adv.) 

GiLDEROY Lord's foundry is situated on Mill street, on Beebee's 
Island. Plows, cultivators, horse rakes, etc., are made. The capital 
employed is $50,000; 12 hands are employed, 25 horse power used 
and the works produce about $30,000 worth per annum. 

H. V. Gadwell & Go., Public Square, manufacture confectionery 
and cigars, employing 11 men. 

W. Allingham & Go., Public Square, manufacture boots and 
shoes, business established 1876 ; capital $3,000, employs 14 hands, 
capacity $23,000 worth per annum. Product sold east and west and 
in local market. 

P. Mundy's Malt House, on Gourt street, is one of the most 
perfect buildings of its kind. It was built in 1875, is 40x183 feet, 
three stories, and is capable of turning out 50,000 bushels of malt 

J. A. QuENCER, cigars, employs 4 men and does an annual busi- 
ness of $8,000. (See adv.) 

Baker & Ghittenden, cigars, employ 4 men and do an annual 
business of $5,000. 

The Eames Vacuum Brake Go. began work in July, 1875, capi- 
tal $500,000. Its works are located on Beebee's Island. It is a 
power brake, the force employed being the pressure of the atmos- 
phere, applied by evacuating the air from a cylinder. It is automatic 







>— < 





WATER TOWN, N. Y. 109 

in its character, instantaneous in its work and pertectly under the con- 
trol of the engineer. It can be operated on any part of the train, 
and in case of accident instantly applies itself. It is regarded by 
railroad men as the simplest, most durable and economical brake in 
existence. It has been thoroughly tested by the R. W. &. O. R. R., 
and has recently been put in operation in South America. The 
officers of the company are : F. W. Eames, President ; J. L. Baker, 
Vice-President; F. W. Spicer Secretary; S. T. Woolworth, Treas- 
urer, with J. F. Moffett, F. W. Hubbard and the officers as Directors. 

Lewis, Henrich & Rounds, furniture, estabhshed 187 1, capital 
$17,000, employ 19 men, use 50 horse power, and manufactured in 
1875, $35,000 worth, using 75,000 feet of lumber. Their works 
are situated near Factory street. The firm manufactures much of 
the wood work for the Davis Sewing Machine Company. (See adv.) 

L. Case & Son, manufacture sash, blinds and doors, grain sepa- 
rators etc; established 1869, capital $8,000, employ 20 men, use 
125 horse power, and do an annual business of $15,000, using 150,- 
000 feet of lumber. 

Other manufacturing industries of greater or less extent, which 
help to make Watertown thrive and contribute in no small degree 
to her prosperity are the following : 

Gates & Spratt, tin, copper, sheet iron, and roofing, 
and manufacturers of the Summer King cook stove, etc. Employ 
9 men and do an extensive business. (See advertisement.) 

HoLDEN & TiLDEN, manufacturers of tinware and peddlers goods, 
employ 35 men and do a large business. 

Tin, copper and hardware : — Sargent & Andrews ; Harbottle «Sc 

Sterling &: Bingham, cheese vats, and dairy supplies. 

Carriage and wagon makers : — Horton & Dodge ; E. Hamlin ; 
A. L. Darling; C. W. Acker. 

Marble works : — H. F, Ferrin; F. M. Ferrin ; G. Van Vleck. 

Clothing:— J. C. Streeter & Co.; G. W. Wiggins; J. R. Miller. 

Hanchett & Converse, Jefferson Flour Mills, 

Wilson & Isdell, Crescent Mills. 

Lumber yards : — A. Frost ; Starbuck & Allen. 

Armstrong & Friese, silver and electro platers. 

William D. Wilson, ornamental iron works. (See advertisement.) 

Tyler & Harmon, machinists and iron workers 


Baker & Diss, sewing machine attachments and toys. 

Service, Georges & Dubois, furniture and cabinet ware. 

Cole & Zimmerman, cabinet ware and furniture. 

T. Barber, machinist and inventor of the Barber rotary pump. 

D. S. Robbins, soap and candle maker. 

L. Quencer, baker and confectioner. 

S. B. Hart and C. L. Pickett, harness makers. 

Lawlor & Co., Connell's emery grinder. 

S. B. Bartlett, machinist and model maker. 

J. J. Bragger, Son & Co., plumbers and gas fitters-. 

J. S. Greene, patent carpet stretcher. 

Huntington & Denison, waterproof paper bags. 


In the Summer of 1872 it was the good fortune of the citizens of 
Watertown to entertain the editors comprising the New York State 
Editorial Association, which held its annual session in this city. 
They with their families confessed themselves hospitably entertained, 
and upon their return to their homes took occasion to say many 
excellent things cancerning Watertown — her people, her hospitality 
and her natural resources and advantages. We quote the following 
concerning the latter point among the complimentary opinions 
expressed by our visitors : 

Fro77i the Le Roy Gazette. 

" The water-power at Watertown is unsurpassed in extent." 

From the Sing Sing Republican. 
" Watertown is beautifully located and its water-power is immense." 

From Frank Leslie s Illustrated Newspaper. 

" Watertown is a glorious city, situated on Black River, a beautiful stream 
well deserving its name." 

From the Waterloo Observer . 

" The immense water-power afforded by the Black River is well employed 
in running extensive manufactories of various kinds." 

From the Brockport Republican. 

After a detailed description of a visit to the different manufactories of the 
city, it says : 

' The motive power for doing all this business is water — of which the 
Black River furnishes an abundant supply." 


/'rom the Kingston Argus. 

" The citizens of Watertown, in opening their elegant homes, where the 
evidences of wealth, culture, and refinement on every hand bespoke the great 
resouices and the enterprising development of their highly favored region." 
From the Daiisville Advertiser. 

" "Watertown with its beauty of location and its exhaustless water power, 
and other natural advantages — Watertown with its citizens of liberal heart, 
wealth and refinement, will ever hold a prominent place in the memories of 
all who visited her." 

From the Arcade Times. 

" The manufacturing interest? of Watertown are by no means an insig- 
nificant item. Nature has contributed much for Watertown. The noble 
waters of the Black River, whose mighty power is utilized in driving the 
machinery of numerous mills, factories and machine shops, contribute very 
materially to the wealth and prosperity of her people." 

From the Frogf'essive Batavian. 

" Watertown has the facilities to make a large and wealthy cit}'. It has 
ample water power for its manufacturing purposes, and important manufac- 
turing enterprises are alnady established there. If its advantages are prop- 
erly pushed it may become the greatest manufacturing, wealth-producing 
city in the State. We heartily wish it and its liberal hearted citizens 
unbounded prosperity." 

From the Roman Citizen. 
"The members of the convention were given a ride of inspection over the 
beautiful city of Watertown, and thoroughly was the dut}' performed. The 
public and private buildings were inspected, the large and extensive manu- 
factories were fully examined, and all were impressed not only with the 
beauty of the cit3' generally, but with the extent and magnitude of its manu- 
factories, and the unlimited power at command in the waters of Hlack River 
to extend them." 

From the Batavia Republican Advocate. 

"Watertown is elegantly laid out especially for private residences. The 
lots are very large, and generally are beautilully embellished with lawns, 
trees, flowers, etc. The city is most admirably adapted by nature for a large 
manufacturing citv, and her citizens seem to possess not only theabilit}', but 
a desire to improve upon nature. Her vast water power is used to drive a 
large amount of machinery, but still there is " more of the same sort left." 

Horace Gteeley in the Nexu York Tribune. 

In 1850 the late Horace Greeley passed several days here and on the 9th 
of July sent to the Tribune a letter from which the following extract is made : 

"The Black River through nearly its whole length dashes and foams over 
a bed of limestone, falling from 20 to 30 feet per mile, its narrow square- 
sided channel being cut through solid limestone and reaching down but a 
few feet from its surface, so as to afford more water power at less cost than 


I ever saw elsewhere. I am confident this one river and its tributaries afford 
power adequate to do the spinning and weaving of all the cotton, flax and 
wool grown in the United States." 

Fi'oin Verplanck Colviti Esq., Superintendent of the Adirondac Siwvey. 

" Your Association is doing valuable work in directing public attention 
to the wonderful hydraulic power of your wilderness-fed river, and cannot 
fail to accomplish good results." 

WasJiington Correspondence of Watertown Ti7nes, 1876. 

" Watertown is indeed acquiring a national reputation for its beauty and 
attractiveness, and as such celebrit}' is merited, it is not strange that its 
citizens are generally contented and happy." 


Its Early History — The First Map — Its Productions — Its Location — History 
AND Progress of Each of the Towns of the County — Summer Resorts — 
Sporting, Etc., Etc. 

A history of Watertown, or a description of its resources and advan- 
tages, would be incomplete without just historic mention of the prosper- 
ous county of which she is the county seat, and the commercial, financial 
and business centre. A volume is needed to do full honor to the county, 
and we confine ourselves here to a few facts and figures touching its for- 
mation, history and progress which may be of interest and profit. Ex- 
tended mention is made elsewhere of the geological characteristics, the 
iron and horticultural interests of the county, which are directly identical 
with the interests of Watertown herself. We present elsewhere, also, 
figures from the census of 1875, which will demonstrate to all readers 
its strength and importance as an agricultural district, Jefferson county 
occupying a high place in this regard among the counties of the State. In 
the present article we are obliged to confine ourselves to such facts bear- 
ing on this subject, and the resources of the county as are at present ac- 


Actual settlements began in Jefferson county in the latter part ot the 
eighteenth century. Those who first came to inhabit the wilderness as it 
then existed, found on every hand unmistakable evidence, that prior to 
that time, how many years it is impossible to estimate, the region had 
been the abode of a race of warlike savages. Almost every town in the 
county presented proofs, many of which are still in existence, that the race 





►— < 

WATER TOWN, N. V. 118 

was one of great antiquity. Organic remains, rude implements of war- 
fare, were repeatedly found by the settlers, and earthworks exist to-day in 
many places, suggestive of savage warfare, which excite the minds of the 
curious to conjecture and inquiry as to their origin. But very little of pos- 
itive knowledge in this direction, however, has been obtained. 


The act erecting Jefferson county was passed March 28, 1805. All this 
section of countr)^ was originally a portion of Albany county, erected Nov. 
I, 1683. From Albany county came Try on in 1772 — from Try on came 
Montgomery in 1784 — from Montgomery C3.u\q Herkimer in 1791, — from 
Herkimer came Oneida in 1798 — and Jefferson was taken from Oneida 
in 1805. Its name was derived from Thomas Jefferson — a noble name, 
which the county has ever borne with honor. Among the pioneers most 
interested in the formation of this new county, were Henry Coffeen ot 
Watertown, and Gen. Jacob Brown of Brownville. 


A map of the State, published Oct. 16, 1802 by Simeon DeWitt, then 
Surveyor General, shows many interesting facts with reference to the 
county. The only village in the tract now called Jefferson county, was 
Brownville. Watertown was divided into three sections : Hesiod, Leg- 
horn and Milan, the former lying on Lake Ontario, and Leghorn situated 
where Watertown city now stands. On the south were Henderson, Alep- 
po, Orpheus, and Handel, the south line being formed by Minos, Atticus, 
Fenelon and Shakspeare. The region North of Black River was called 
Castorland. The position of the Thousand Islands was therein put down 
as "unknown." Chaumont Bay was called Hungry Bay. The territory 
now comprising Oswego county on the south, was known by various sin- 
gular names, such as Metz, Strasburg, Arcadia, Campania, Hybla, Rhad- 
amant, Rurabella, Longinus Alkmaer, Fredericksburg, Bergen and Breda. 
On the east, no doubt inhabited by a perfect people, lay the divisions of 
Unanimity, Frugality, Perseverance, Sobriety, Enterprise, Economy, Reg- 
ularity and Industry. 


The first meeting of the Board of Supervisors was held in the school 
house in Watertown, Oct. i, 1805, and was constituted as follows : Cham- 
pion, Noadiah Hubbard ; Rutland, Clift French : Watertown, Carlos 
Hinds ; Brownville, John W. Collins ; Adams, Nicholas Salisbury ; Har- 
rison, (now Rodman), Thomas White ; Ellisburgh. Lyman Ellis ; Malta, 
(now Lorraine), Asa Brown. The aggregate of real and personal estate 
then reported in the county, was $805,992. There was about that time, 
(1807), a voting population in the county of 1983. 


As showing the progress of the county in wealth and population, the 
census of 1875 gives it a population of 65,392, and the aggregate of real 

114 WATER TOWN, N. Y. 

and personal property reported in that year to the supervisors was 
$33,942,416, about five-sixths being real estate. There were 13,724 
dwellings, and 14,407 families. 


The chief productions in 1870 were 228,772 bushels of wheat, 221,551 of 
Indian corn, 1,058,227 of oats, 415,704 of barley, 86,602 of peas and beans, 
507,349 of potatoes, 104,459 ^^s. of wool, 262,738 of hops, 35,850 of flax, 
529,109 of maple sugar, 4,883,508 of butter, 2,545,654 of cheese, and 
223,343 tons of hay. There were 15,564 horses, 72,980 milch cows, 
23,525 other cattle, 26,390 sheep, and 13,930 swine. There were 554,155 
acres of improved land — the value of farms was $33,432,152, and the total 
value of farm productions was -18,276.348, ranking the third county in the 
State. This showing illustrates, in some degree, the importance of Jef- 
ferson as an agricultural county. The excellence of its horses is widely 
recognized, and great attention is paid to the rearing of blooded cattle. 
It ranks among the first as a dairying county, and its product in this direc- 
tion is one of its most important industries. In 1870 there were 79 cheese 
factories, and in 1876 its number will considerably exceed 100. In 1874 
a Dairyman's Board of Trade was organized, which has been of great 
advantage to the cheese making interest. In 1875 its transactions were 
very extensive, amounting to many hundred thousands of dollars. Meet- 
ings were held at Watertow'n each week (Saturday) from April 3 to Nov. 
27. Ninety-five cheese factory associations were represented, and fifteen 
dealers. At the meeting Oct. 2, 1875, -he offerings were 37,938 boxes, 
valued at $200,000. 


In 1870 there were reported 6 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 9 of cheese boxes, 35 of carriages, 79 of cheese, 21 of clothing, 4 
of confectionery, i of cotton goods, 21 of turniture, 10 of iron castings, i 
of brooms, 1 1 of machinery, i of steam engines, 4 of malt, 6 of paper, 3 
of pumps, 34 of saddler}' and harness, 8 of sash, doors and blinds, i of 
sewing machines, i of steel springs, 24 of tin, copper and sheet ironware, 
6 of woolen goods, 36 saw mills, 5 breweries, 19 tanneries, 9 currying 
establishments, and 40 flour mills. The total number of manufacturing 
establishments of all kinds reported in 1870, was J^J, using 41 steam en- 
gines and 364 water wheels, and employing 3,455 hands. The capital re- 
ported was $3,813,092 ; wages paid, $941,944; value of material, $4,753,- 
521; value ot product, $7,241,009. 


The area of Jefferson county is 1,868 square miles, or 1,195,520 square 
acres. The towns of Eilisburgh, Henderson, Hounsfield, Brovvnville, 
Lyme and Cape Vincent border on Lake Ontario on the west, and the 
St. Lawrence river is the northern boundary of the towns of Cape Vincent, 



Clayton, Orleans and Alexandria. St. Lawrence county bounds it on the 
north east, Lewis on the east and Oswego on the south. Black river in- 
tersects the county, flowing east to west, and it is also watered bv Indian 
and Chaumont rivers and several smaller but important streams. The 
land rises gradually from the lake to a height of i,ooo feet. The soil is 
generally fertile, as its agricultural products prove. Iron ore deposits are 
mostly situated in the north eastern portion of the county, adjoining St. 
Lawrence. We give below a brief history of the settlement, progress 
and present condition of each town in Jefferson County : 


Formed April i, 1802, and derived its name from President John Ad- 
ams. Wolf bounties were features of its early life, and in 1822-3 ^he poor 
upon the town were voted to be sold at auction to the highest bidder. 
The first town meeting was held March i, 1803. Settlements were first 
made April 16, 1800, by Nicholas Salisbury, and he was elected the 
first Supervisor. The town contains 27,198 acres of land. The assessed 
valuation in 1875 was: real estate, $2,252,525 ; personal, $765,225. Pop- 
ulation 1875, 3,334. The town contains the villages of Adams, Adams 
Centre, and Smithville. Adams village was incorporated Nov. 11. 1851. 
Its population in 1875 '^^'as 1,400. It contains 27 stores, 2 hotels, 4 
churches, (Baptist, Methodist. Presbyterian, Episco]):il), i bank, i grist 
mill, I last factory, i lumber yard and mill, i saw mill, i machine shop 
and foundry, 2 malt houses, 2 tanneries, &c. It derives its water power 

Hiing eTf€>T€L Oollegiafe InsH-tuie. 

from the north branch of Sandy Creek. Hungerford Collegiate Institute 
is located here and is one of the most flourishing institutions of learning 
in the State. The number of registered students during the year is 435. 
The village is handsomely laid out, is plentifully shaded, and its people 
are noted for enterprise, thrift, and intelligence. It contains 2 newspa- 
pers — the Journal and Herald — the former one of the oldest and most 
successful in the county. Adams is a station on the R. W. & O. RR. 
Adams Centre is located 3 miles north of Adams. It is a pleasant, thrif- 
ty village of 300 inhabitants, a station on the same railroad, contains 8 
stores, 3 hotels, 3 churches, (Baptist. Seven-Day Baptist, and Advent), i 
Handy Package Dye Factory, i sash and blind factory, &c. Smithville, 
located partly in this town and partly in Henderson, contains 2 stores, i 
hotel, I church, (Baptist), i grist mill, i saw mill, &c. Population 150. 
It is situated on Stoney Creek. 



This town was erected April 3, 1821, and derives its name from Alex- 
ander, a son of J. D. LeRay, who obtained a Colonel's commission in the 
Texan revolution and fell in a duel in 1836. It is the most northern town 
in the county. The first improvement in the town was made about 181 1, 
by LeRay. Wolves and panthers were among the earliest settlers. The 
town contains 37,963 acres of land. Its assessed valuation in 1875 was : 
real estate, $371,185 ; personal, $13,960. Its population in 1875 was 
3,476. The town contains three villages — Alexandria Bay, Redwood, 
and Plessis. The former is situated opposite the most picturesque por- 
tion of the celebrated Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence; contains 
2 large hotels, and one smaller one, and for several years has been an at- 
tractive place of resort, on account of its fine scenery and excellent fish- 
ing. Its population is 450, It contains 3 stores, 2 churches, (Reform 
Protestant, and Methodist), i school with an attendance of 140, i steam 
saw mill, 2 telegraph office, &c. Redwood is a thriving village on ihe 
U. & B. R. RR., and contains among other business interests the Red- 
wood Glass Manufacturing Company, which has been in operation since 
1833. The sand used in making glass is procured by calcining and crush- 
ing the Potsdam sandstone of the vicinity, which is found well adapted to 
the business. The value of glass manufactured in 1875 was $60,000. 
The water power is furnished by a stream 25 rods in length, running 
from Mud into Butterfield Lake, having a fall of 90 feet. The village 
contains 8 stores, 2 hotels, 4 churches, (Catholic, Baptist, Episcopal, and 
German Lutheran), i school with an attendance of 175, i flouring mill, i 
machine shop and shingle mill, i saw mill, i wool carding and cloth 
dressing mill, 2 carriage shops, i telegraph office, &c. Its population is 
700. The population of Plessis is 300. It has 3 stores, i hotel, 3 churches, 
(Presbyterian, Protestant, and Episcopal), i school with an attendance ot 
120, I flouring mill, i saw mill, i shingle mill, i carriage shop, 2 cheese 
factories, telegraph office, &c. 


This town was formed April 5, 18 10, and was named from Antwerp in 
Belgium, the seat of the "Antwerp Company," which formerly owned' a 
large tract of land in this vicinity. Daniel Heald was the first Supervisor. 
Wolf, fox, hawk and crow bounties were features of early local law. In 
the war of 181 2 the town built a fort to fortify against an "expected ene- 
•my."" In 1825 a reward of $10 was offered for a sure device for destroy- 
ing the Canada thistle. The first settler in the town was Wm. Lee, who 
settled in 1803. A saw mill was built by Silas Ward, in 1806, and a 
grist mill in 1807, by John Jenison. For mineral wealth, Antwerp stands 
unrivalled in the county. It is mostly underlaid by primary rock, and the 
border being of the lowest sedementary formations, it affords at many 
points, valuable mines of iron ore, which may be said to be inexhaustible. 
Strong indications ot ores which have not yet been explored, exist in vari- 
ous parts of the town. Specular iron ore had been wrought in the ad- 
joining town of Rossie, St. Lawrence Co., in 181:. In 1836, a mine was 
opened about 3 miles north of Antwerp village, now called the Sterling 
ore bed. The land on which this mine wss discovered, was first sold for 
$206. It has proved a mine of immense value, yielding ore of rich quali- 
ty, and in unlimited amount. The Keene ore bed was discovered on the 
farm of Col. Hiram B. Keene, in the same range with the mines of Ros- 


sie, in 1837. Heavy mining operations have since been carried on. The 
ore dips at an angle of 45 degrees, overlaid by huge masses of sand- 
stone. The mine is wrought under ground by lamps. The Dixon bed 
is located in this town, a valuable mine, but now lying idle through mis- 
management. Near the Keene bed, on the border of St .Lawrence Co., 
are the Caledonia and Kearney beds, the former of which is very valuable 
and productive. [For further observations upon the iron interests, see 
article elsewhere on that subject.] Potsdam sandstone for lining fur- 
naces, has been wrought extensively on the farm of Col. Keene. Antwerp 
contains 71,523 acres of land, assessed at 1560,725 ; personal, $39,445. 
Population in 1875, 3,363. Antwerp village was incorporated July 30, 
1853. It contains 19 stores, 2 hotels, 4 churches, (Cong., Meth., Epis., 
Cath.), I flouring mill, i foundry and machine shop, i saw mill, 2 sash 
and door factories, i furniture factory, i planing mill, i tannery, i cheese 
factory, 3 wagon shops, i bank, &c., &c. The Ives Seminary is located 
here, and is a flourishing educational institution. The population of the 
village in 1875 ^'^s 1,000. It is an important station on the R.W. & O. RR., 
vast quantities of iron being shipped from this point. Ox Bow contains 
300 inhabitants, 4 stores, 2 hotels, 2 churches, (Pres., Meth.), and i steam 
saw mill. Shingle Creek contains 9 stores, 2 hotels, 4 churches, (Meth., 
Cath., Pres., Epis.), i grist mill, i saw mill and 2 planing mills. The 
village is a station on the R. W. & O. RR., (Keenes), and contains a pop- 
ulation of 1,000, comprising a large number of miners. The place is par- 
tially in Jefferson and partially in St. Lawrence counties. 


Brownville was erected April i, 1802. It was named from Jacob 
Brown, afterward Major-General in the army, the first settler (1799) gen- 
eral land agent, and Supervisor. Bounties for wolves, panthers and foxes 
were offered until 1807. A saw mill was built in 1800, and a grist mill in 
1 801. In 1805 the village contained 25 houses, and for some years grew 
more rapidly than any other in the county, and was for a long time a 
lively rival of Watertown in thrift and enterprise. The location of the 
county buildings at the latter place, threw the balance in its favor. Upon 
the declaration of war in 181 2, Brownville was the scene of much activity 
from its being the headquarters of Gen. Brown, who had the personal di- 
rection of military operations on this frontier during the first season. 
Troops were stationed in the village. The village of Brownville was in- 
corporated April 5, 1828, Wm. S. Ely being its first President. The 
Brownville Manufacturing Company was formed Feb. 9, 1814, with a 
capital of $100,000. A factory was erected and the manufacture of wool 
and cotton carried on for a short time, when it changed hands. The 
Brownville Cotton Factory was incorporated April 6. 1831, with a capital 
of $100,000. The factory has been in operation at intervals ever since. 
Brownville ]oossesses a great amount of water power, and in many re- 
spects excellent advantages for manufacturing. It is situated on Black 
River, 4 miles from Watertown and 3 from the foot of Lake Ontario, and 
is a station on the R.W. & O. RR. Its population in 1875 ^^^s 700, It 
contains 5 churches, (Epis., Pres., Meth., Univ., Cath.), i fine school 
house, 2 hotels, 4 stores, 2 foundries and machine shops, 2 flouring mills, 
I saw mill. 2 furniture and wood-working shops, 4 carriage shops, &c., &c. 
Its largest manufactory is the Brownville Cotton Mill, containing 3,500 
spindles and 76 looms. When in full operation 65 hands are employed. 
It is now making cotton duck, and will turn out 20,000 yar ds per week, or 


18,000 yards of sheeting. The facilities for manufacturing at this place 
are first-class. Dexter is another fine incorporated village in this town, 3 
miles below Brownville, containing 700 inhabitants, 4 churches, (Epis., 
Univ., Pres., Meth.), 2 hotels, 7 stores, 2 flouring mills, i ten set woolen 
mill, 2 sash, blind and door factories, 2 saw mills, i wool carding factory, 
I carriage shop, i plaster mill, i shingle factory, &c., &c. There are fair 
prospects that the woolen mill will be started during the present year. 
About 3,000,000 feet of lumber are annually sold at this point. Perch 
River, Pillar Point and Limerick are post-offices in the town. The latter 
is one mile from Dexter and is a station on the R. W. & O. RR. The 
town of Brownville contains 34,852 acres of land, assessed at $1,751,800 ; 
personal, $172,550. Population in 1875, 2,876, 


Erected April 10, 1849; F. A. Folger its first Supervisor. The town 
derives its name from Vincent LeRay, who formerly owned this and other 
towns in the county. The earliest settlement on the main land in this 
town was made in 1801, by A. Putnam, who established a ferry to Wolf 
Island, lying opposite. Carlton Island was settled in the latter part ot 
the 1 8th century. This island lies opposite the town and contains the 
ruins of an ancient fort, the origin of which is still disputed. During the 
war of 181 2 there was much excitement and activity here, owing to its 
close proximity to the British dominions. A custom house was estab- 
lished at Cape Vincent in 18 18, and the village was formerly the scene of 
much activity in ship building, following the year 18 19. The town con- 
tains 33,978 acres of land, assessed at $1,758,060 ; personal, $67,535. Its 
population in 1875 was 3,188. Fishing, agriculture, and shipping, form 
the present activ^e industries of the town. Cape Vincent village was in- 
corporated in 1853. Its population in 1875 was 1,250. It contains 13 
stores, 7 hotels — one of which is a summer hotel — 4 churches, (Meth., 
Pres., Epis., Cath.), 2 extensive shingle mills, i large flouring mill, i saw 
mill, &c., &c. The mills are driven by steam. It is the St. Lawrence 
terminus of the R. W. & O. RR., and has some of the best wharves on 
the lakes — being over 3,000 feet long — with extensive freight house, a 
large elevator, &c., &c. Vast quantities of iron ore are brought here by rail 
for transhipment to Rochester and the West. All steamers plying the 
river stop here, and the Messrs. Folger Brothers of Kingston, Ont., (di- 
rectly opposite), supply a magnificent ferry between the two ports. Pleas- 
ure steamers ply down the river to Clayton and Alexandria Bay during 
the summer season, and Cape Vincent itself is popular as a summer resort, 
on account of its salubrious air and excellent fishing. St. Lawrence post- 
office is in this town. The Eagle is printed at Cape Vincent. 


Formed March 14, 1800, and named from Gen. Henry Champion, of 
Conn., one of the early proprietors of the town. Noadiah Hubbard was 
its Supervisor until 18 14. The first actual settlements in the county were 
made in this town in 1797. A meeting was held Oct. 23, 1800, and a log 
school house ordered built. The first saw mill in town was built by Wm. 
Hadsall and A. J. Eggleson, in 1802, on Mill Creek, near the Rutland 
line. In 1804 David Coffeen moved into the town and built a saw mill 
on Black River, opposite Carthage, which was the first hydraulic im- 
provement at that place. In 1806, $100 was raised to eradicate the Can- 
ada thistle, and wolf, fox and panther bounties were offered up to 1820. 

WATER TOWN, N. V. 119 

It is related that a magistrate in this town, heard that a leading citizen of 
Lowville, Lewis Co., with whom he had had some difficulty, had offered 
a bounty of $5 for his head. He went to Lowville on foot, determined on 
"satistaction."' His opponent denied the charge, on the ground that he 
had only offered half that sum. The aggrieved party returned, "satisfied." 
The town contains 25,991 acres of land, assessed at $941,400; personal, 
$75,060. Population in 1875, 2,246, The town contains two villages — 
Champion and Great Bend. Great Bend is situated on Black River, and 
is also a station on the U. & B. R. RR. Its population is 250. It con- 
tains 3 stores, 2 hotels, 2 churches, (Bap., Epis.), i fine flour mill, i man- 
ufactoiy of hanging paper, &'c. Champion contains a population of 100, 
I store, I hotel, and 3 churches, (Epis., Meth., Cong). 


This town was formed April 27, 1833, and Hubbel Fox was chosen 
first Supervisor. Its name was derived from Hon. John M. Clayton. U. S. 
Senator from Delaware. At an early period there was an Indian fort in 
this town, but no date or details are known concerning it. The first per- 
manent settlement was made in 1801 by a man named Bartlet, about a 
mile from Clayton village. A saw mill was erected in 1804; and in 1825 
a stone school house was erected and the first school taught. The town 
contains 49,244 acres of land, assessed at $636,895, and personal estate at 
$35,025. In 1875 its population was 4,215 The town is well adapted to 
agricultural pursuits, and is thriving and prosperous. Its principal village 
is Clayton, beautifully located on the shores of the St. Lawrence river, in 
the immediate vicinity of the Thousand Islands. It is one of the three 
termini of the U. & B. R. RR. It was incorporated April 17, 1872, and 
in 1875 its population was 1,600. It has 4 churches, (Epis., Bap., Meth., 
Cath.), two commodious first-class hotels kept by first-class landlords, 12 
stores, I flour mill, i shingle mill, 3 machine shops, 3 wagon shops, i 
newspaper, (the I7idepc7idcnt), and other smaller industries. Ship build- 
ing has always been its chief pride — beginning in 1832 and continuing to 
this day. Within this period hundreds of all classes of vessels have been 
built, among which have been some of the finest steamers on the lakes. 
The ship-yard is still a busy spot. It has one of the finest of harbors, and 
large quantities of timber from the West are here transhipped from ves- 
sels and made into rafts, and taken down the St. Lawrence to Quebec, for 
shipment to Europe. The Thousand Island Park, on the Island of the 
Camp Meeting Association, is in view of the village and only 4 miles dis- 
tant. The village is a favorite summer resort, and excellent fishing 
abounds. Thousands of visitors are entertained here every summer. 
Grindstone Island is directly opposite the village, and Gananoque, Ont., is 
on the Canadian shore in the same direction. Other post-offices in this 
town are Depauville, (2 stores, 2 churches), (Meth. and Bap.), and Clay- 
ton Centre. 


This town was erected Feb. 22, 1803, and derives its name from Lyman 
Ellis, of Troy, who settled in 1797. Edward Boomer was its first Super- 
visor. The first saw mill was erected in 1797. The first grist mill was a 
stump with spring and pestle. The first corn and potatoes raised in the 
county were produced in this town in 1797. The early settlement of the 
town is full ot interesting history too long to re-produce here-. A small 
engagement took place in this region in the war of 1812, the Americans 



being victorious. Ellisburgh is one of the largest towns in the county 
the most populous, and is justly celebrated for its value as a rich agricul- 
tural section. It contains 48,570 acres of land, assessed at $2,789,360; 
personal at 1201,510. Population in 1875, 4,819. It contains more valu- 
able farms than any other town, and more thrifty, enterprising villages. 
Belleville village was incorporated in i860. Its population is 485. It 
contains 8 stores, i hotel, 3 churches, (Bap., Meth., Cath.), 2 grist mills, i 

saw mill, i cheese factory, i cabinet"7 factory, (Sic, &c. Union Academy, 
located here, is one of the oldest institutions in the State, as it is one of 
the best. An effort is being made, with flattering prospects, to endow the 
institution with $50,000. Mannsville, on the R. W. & O. RR., has a pop- 
ulation of 600, contains i hotel. 5 churches, (Cong., Meth., Bap., Dis., 
Adv.,), 2 large flour mills, i large steam saw mill, i large tannery', i 
cheese' box factory, &c. Pierrepont Manor, on the R. W. & O. RR., con- 
tains 2 stores, I hotel, 2 churches, (Epis., Union), &c. It is the home of 
Hon. Wm. C. Pierrepont. Ellisburgh contains a population of 250, 3 
stores, I hotel, 2 churches, (Univ., Meth.), i grist mill, i sash and blind 
factorv, I carding mill, i manufactory of agricultural implements, &c. 
The village is situated on the south branch of Sandy Creek. Other post- 
offices in the town are Woodville and Rural Hill. 


Formed Feb. 17, 1806. The first town meeting was held in the same 
year, and Jesse Hopkins chosen Supervisor. The town derives its name 
from Wm. Henderson, who was once the owner of the tract from which 
the town was formed. In 1803-4, but ten families wintered in town. In 
May, 1806, there were seventy families. The first school was taught in 
1808-9, by Elias Forbes. The early settlers were troubled with wolves 
and panthers, and bounties were offered for their extinction ; and in 
1811-12 it was voted that thistles should be cut in the old of the moon 
during the summer months. Evidences of aboriginal occupation exist in 
various parts of the town, and traces of a French stockade still exist at 
Six Town Point. This point extends two miles into Lake Ontario, form- 
ing one of the best harbors on the lakes. This circumstance gave value 
to the township, and had a beginning been properly made and properly 
directed, the place at this time might have been an important commer- 
cial point. Some of the finest scener}' on the lake beautifies this town, 
and Henderson Harbor was in early days called Naples, from the roman- 
tic beauty of its situation. Excellent fishing abounds in the vicinity, and 
the Harbor is becoming a favorite place of resort. A hotel was built here 

WATER TOWN, N. Y. - 121 

in 1875, but was burned during the winter. The town is fertile and un- 
der a high state of cultivation — fruit growing in profusion along the lake 
shore. The town contains 24,115 acres of land, assessed at $1,216,355 5 
personal estate, $106,550. Its population in 1875 was 1,815. Hendersoji 
is the only village in the town, Sinithville lying partially in the town of 
Adams. The population of the former is 520. It contains 6 stores, 2 
hotels, 3 churches, (Bap., Pres., Univ.), 2 grist mills, i saw mill, i lumber 
mill, I planing mill, and i union school with an attendance of 1 56 pupils. 


Formed Feb. 17, 1806. Augustus Sacket was its first Supervisor. The 
town derived its name from Ezra Hounsfield, of Sheffield, England, one of 
the owners of the town. Wolf and panther bounties were continued till 
1 8 16, and fox bounties to 1831. From an early period the waters ot 
Black River Bay were regarded as eligible for commercial purposes. The 
town is bounded on the West by the Bay and Lake Ontario. In 1802 
thirty families had settled in the town. Mr. Sacket was the first active 
settler. In 1808 Samuel F. Hooker established a store at Sackets Har- 
bor, with a stock of $20,000. In 50 days he sold $17,500 worth. The 
export of potash to Montreal was at that time a large and paying business, 
and until its shipment was forbidden. During the war of 1812, Sackets 
Harbor became the theatre of militar)' and naval operations on an exten- 
sive scale. The place was twice attacked by the British without success. 
Madison Barracks were built in 18 16, and are still used as quarters for 
U. S. troops. Here are the remains of many Americans who fell at this 
point. A prominent relic of the war at this place is the hull of the. 
frigate "New Orleans," which has a keel of 187 {^^l and a measurement of 
3,200 tons. She was never launched, and has been preserved by the 
government and covered with a house. Considerable ship-building has 
been done at this point. In 1832 a canal, 20 feet wide and 4 feet deep, 
was built from a point two miles above Watertown to Sackets Harbor, 
12 miles, which gave the village a valuable water power, upon which sev- 
eral mills were erected. It was abandoned after 10 years. A railroad 
formerly extended from the village to Pierrepont Manor, (opened June i, 
1853), but which was sold and taken up after a few years. In 1873 the 
Carthage, Watertown & Sackets Harbor RR. was extended from Water- 
town, and the village again enjoys the benefit of railroad advantages. 
Sackets Harbor is one of the finest harbors on the lakes. The village 
was incorporated April 15, 1814, Population in 1875, 749. It contains 
14 stores, 2 hotels, 3 churches, (Meth., Pres., Epis.), one union school 
house accommodating 200 scholars, i iron foundry, &c. ; 630 tons of 
shipping are owned at this port. Stowells Corners is the remaining post- 
office in this town. The town contains 27,790 acres of land, assessed at 
$1,511,780 ; personal at $125,000. Population in 1875, 2,552. The Har- 
bor is a favorite place of summer resort during the season — fishing and 
boating and fine air being its chief attractions. 


LeRay was erected Feb. 17, 1806, and derives its name from James D. 
LeRay de Chaumont, the distinguished land-holder. James Shurtliff was 
its first Supervisor. Bounties for destruction of wild animals were offered 
until 1 82 1. The first saw mill in town was erected at LeRaysville in 
1802, by Benjamin Brown, and the place was for many years the seat of 
LeRay's land-office, until its removal in 1835 to Carthage, It is a small 

122 WATER TOWN, N. Y. 

hamlet nine miles from Watertown and three from Evans Mills. The 
latter village is situated on the R. W. & O. RR., and on a lively stream 
which empties into Indian River, It derives its name from Elihu Evans, 
one of the first settlers, by whom the first saw and grist mills were 
erected in 1809. Its population is 450, and it "was incorporated in 1873. 
It contains 9 stores, 3 hotels, 4 churches, (Meth., Pres., Bap., Cath., value 
$23,000), I cheese box factory with facilities for cutting hoops for 200,000 
boxes and puts up 50.000 boxes annually, i horse rake manufactory turn- 
ing out yearly 1,000 rakes, i grist mill, i saw mill, i brewery making 
1,500 bbls. of ale each season. M. Cooper's cheese factory, the most 
important in the county, is located here. It takes the yield of 1,000 cows, 
and last year used 2,621,510 pounds of milk, and its total sales reached 
$35,000. Slocum's grist and woolen mills are located at Slocumville, near 
Evans Mills, and are worthy of mention. S;mfords Corners, the remain- 
ing post-office in the town is on the R. W. & O. RR., is a hamlet con- 
taining a hotel, store and cheese factory. The town contains 52,856 
acres of land, assessed at $617,390 ; personal at $35,646. The popula- 
tion in 1875 was 2,733. 


Was erected March 1 2, 1 804. The first town meeting was held March 
5, 1805, and Asa Brown chosen supervisor. In those days fence viewers 
were chosen, wolf bounties were given, and careless husbandmen were 
fined $2, in 18 12-13, for allowing Canada thistles to grow. The first set- 
tlement of the town was in November, 1802, by James McKee and Elijah 
Fox. The town contains 22,359 acres of land, assessed at $682,930, 
and personal estate at $31,950. Its population in 1875 was i,377- The 
south branch of Sandy creek traverses the town from east to west. The 
town is elevated, very uneven, and underlaid by shales, which occur here 
so finely developed that the term Lor7-aine shale has been applied to the 
formation. In many cases deep gulfs have been worn in the soil by the 
action of frost and atmosphere, varying in depth from one hundred to two 
hundred feet, and many rods in width. Lorraine is the only village in the 
town. Its population is 150. It has i store, i hotel, 2 churches (Meth. 
and Bap.), i grist mill, i saw mill and cheese-box factory, and other 
minor industries. 


Was formed March 6, 18 18, and derived its name from Lyme, Conn. 
Its first supervisor was R. M. Esselstyn. In 1822 wolf bounties were 
offered. The first settlement in the town was made in 1801. A saw mill 
was built in 1803. The first school was taught in 1805 by Nancy Smith. 
In 1805 a store was opened at Chaumont village. The town is very 
irregular in shape, and presents, with its islands and peninsulas, a large 
water front. Chaumont Bay is many miles in extent, and is an excellent 
harbor of safetv for vessels. The town contains 33,541 acres of land, 
assessed at $i,'388,265 ; personal at $80,500. Pop., 1875, 2,344, Chau- 
mont village is located on a bay and at the mouth of a river of the same 
name, and is a station on the R. W. & O. R. R. It contains 500 inhabi- 
tants, is incorporated, contains 5 stores, i hotel, 2 churches (Meth., Pres.), 
I grist mill, i saw mill, &c. The fishing interest at this place is extensive 
and profitable, and important stone quarries, which have yielded for many 
years vast quantities of limestone, are located here, and are still extensively 
worked. They occur in a strata corresponding with the Black River 


Marble, Three Mile Bay is a station on the R. W. «& O. R. R., contains 
300 inhabitants, 6 stores, i hotel, 3 churches (Meth. Bap. and Free Will 
Bap.), I grist mill, i saw mill, i planing- mill. It has been a station of 
much importance in ship-building, and this trade is still carried on to some 
extent. Point Peninsula is the remaining post office in the town. 


Was erected April 3, 1821, and derived its name from New Orleans. 
Its first supervisor was Amos Reed. Improvements began in this town 
in 1806. A small portion of the town extends to the St. Lawrence river. 
The settlement of Penet Square, in this town, in early days, formed a 
subject for agitation, that tract being owned bv John Lafarge, a native of 
Havre, and the agent of Louis Phillippe. the unfortunate prince. Lafarge- 
ville is the principal village in the town, settled in 18 19 by Dr. Reuben 
Andrus, of Vermont. A store was opened in 1820, and the village for- 
mally named July 4, 1823. The Lafarge mansion, situated one mile south 
of the village, was occupied for two years as a Catholic seminary. Water 
lime was manufactured to a small extent in 1850 at this place, and an 
abundance of material adapted to the purpose exists in the town. The 
village now contains 360 inhabitants, 6 stores, i hotel, i wagon shop, i 
grist mill, i saw mill, 4 churches (Bap., Meth., Epis., Cath.), &c. &c. It 
is located on Chaumont river, and is a station on the U. & B. R. R. The 
other settlements in the town are Orleans Four Corners, Omar, Stone 
Mills, and Fishers Landing. The latter place contains a summer hotel, 
and is a favorite resort for health and pleasure seekers. The town con- 
tains 40,347 acres of land, assessed at $499,760 ; personal at $24,890. Its 
population in 1875 was 2,307. Stone Mills contains i hotel, i store, 2 
churches (Union, Meth.), i cheese factory, 1 wagon shop, tS:c. Pop., 100. 


Formed April 12, 1819. First supervisor, John Stewart. Permanent 
settlements were made in 1804 in that part of the town now included in 
the city of Watertown. The town is a thrilty agricultural section, and 
contains 23.636 acres of land, assessed at $353,280; personal, $12,900. 
Population in 1875, 1,055. Pamelia Four Corners is its only village and 
post office. 


This town was formed April 3, 1821, and Alden Bucklin ^as its first 
supervisor. It is supposed that the Pennsylvania city was named after 
this village. Settlements began in 1803 by Joseph Child and Moses 
Moore, who came from Bucks county. Pa. The town contains 24,135 
acres of land, assessed at $992,115 ; personal at $80,980. Population in 
1875, 1,799. Philadelphia village is situated on the Indian river, and also 
at the junction of the R. W. & O. and U. & B. R. s. The river presents 
at this point considerable water power, much ot which is utilized. The 
falls and ravines below the village present many attractions to the lover 
of romantic scenery. The population of the village is 550. It contains 9 
stores, 2 hotels, 4 churches (Meth. Bap. Free Bap. Cong.), 2 grist mills, 
I plaster mill, 2 saw mills, i tannery, 3 wagon shops, i brick yard, &c., 
&c. Sterlingville is located on the U. & B. R. R., contains 3 stores, i 
hotel, 2 churches (Union, Cath.), i grist mill, 2 saw mills, i blast furnace, 
and I forge. Pop., 187. The blast furnace and forge were erected by 
Caleb Essington in 1839. Philadelphia is rich in mineral wealth, and its 


supply of rich iron ore is probably inexhaustible. The Shurtliff ore bed, 
near Sterlingville, is a continuation of the valuable veins extending through 
the adjoining town of Antwerp, more particular reference to which has 
been made in another portion of this pamphlet. 


Was erected March 24, 1804. Thomas White was its first supervisor. 
The early law makers gave wolf bounties and were opposed to Canada 
thistles. The first settlements were made in 1801, and the first school 
taught in 1803 by Miss M. Nobles. The town is one of the most produc- 
tive in the county, and its people are enterprising, industrious and thrifty. 
There is much wealth in the town. It contains 25,504 acres of land, 
assessed at $1,001,700 ; personal, $870,892. Population in 1875, 1,468. 
Rodman village contains 300 inhabitants, 7 stores, i hotel, 2 churches 
(Meth., Cong.), i grist mill, i pearl barley mill, i tannery, i butter fac- 
tory, 2 carriage shops, &c. East Rodman is its remaining post office. Its 
population is 50, contains i hotel, i store, i church (Meth.), i grist mill, 
and I saw mill. 


This town was organized April i, 1802, its name being suggested by 
settlers from Rutland, Vermont. Its first town meeting was held in 1803, 
when David Coffeen was chosen supervisor. Wolf and fox bounties were 
given in early times, and in 181 1-12 a law was passed requiring Canada 
thistles to be cut "at the full moon in June, July and August," under a 
penalty of one dollar. The first grist mill in the town and in the county 
was erected by. Coffeen in 1800, and a saw mill was built the following 
season. The first school was taught in 1803, and the town has always 
manifested great interest in its schools. The inhabitants were noted for 
industry and intelligence, and these qualities have always been character- 
istic of her people. Her population in 1875 was 1,849, and the town con- 
tains 27,238 acres of land. Real estate is assessed at $470,220, and 
personal at $207,830. Rutland is one of the finest agricultural towns in 
the county, and is largely peopled by thriving farmers. Butter, cheese 
and grain are among her principal productions. The town contains 7 
churches and 4 post offices. Black River is a thrifty village situated 
upon the river by the same name, six miles from Watertown. It contains 
2 stores, 3 churches (Meth., Free Meth. and Dis.), 2 chair factories, i 
bent work^ i shingle mill, i saw mill, i machine shop, i box factory, &c. 
Its populaiffcn is 400. An excellent water power is found here, much of 
which is utilized. Felts Mills, also situated on Black river, is a point of 
considerable business, possessing excellent water power. Its population 
is 250. The village contains i hotel, 2 stores, i church (Union), i grist 
mill. I saw mill, i pump factory, i box factory, i tannery, &c. South 
Rutland is situated on Sandy Creek, and in early times (181 1) was the 
seat of a small woolen factor}^ It contains 2 churches (Union and Bap.), 
2 stores, I hotel, i saw mill, i grist mill, i cheese factory, and is a thrifty 
village of 1 50 inhabitants. 


This town derived its name from a daughter of James LeRay, and was 
formed April 15, 1841. Alex. Salisbury was its first supervisor. Settle- 
ments were actively made in 18 10, and a saw mill was erected which did 
a large business. During the war an engagement took place at Goose 

WATER TOWN, N. Y. 125 

Creek, in this town, in July, 1813, in which the Americans were victo- 
rious. Permanent settlements began in 18 19, when a grist mill and hotel 
were erected. A blast furnace for the reduction of iron ore was built in 
1847, and was in operation three years, using ore found in this town and 
in Philadelphia. The town is underlaid by primary rock and Potsdam 
sandstone, covered in many places by an accumulation of drift. The soil 
is fertile, and the town takes a front rank in agricultural resources. The 
number and romantic beauty of the many lakes situated in this town are 
among its chief attractions. They are nearly twenty in number, the 
largest being Butterfield, Mud, Moose, Grass, Hyde, Sixbury, Millsite, and 
Muscalonge. These lakes are delightful places of resort, and are equally 
attractive to the sportsman, geologist, or the lover of fine scenery. The- 
resa, the only incorporated village in the town, is beautifully located on 
the Indian river at High Falls. There is a fine water power here, and 
well improved. The village is an important station on the U. & B. R. R. 
It contains 16 stores, 2 hotels, 3 churches (Pres., Meth., Epis.), 2 sash 
and door factories, i woolen factory, i chair factory, i tub and box fac- 
tory, I tannerv, 2 cabinet factories, 2 grist mills, 3 saw mills, i machine 
shop and foundry, i manufactor)^ of fishing tackle, &c., &c. Its popula- 
lion is over 1,000. The town contains 40,911 acres of land, assessed at 
$435,555 ; personal, $31,205 Population in 1875, 2,361. 


Formed March 14, 1800. Corlis Hinds, first supervisor. The city of 
Watertown was taken from it May 8, 1869. The town is principally de- 
voted to agricultural pursuits, and its people are mostly thrifty and indus- 
trious farmers. It contains 25,200 acres, assessed at $1,036,400, and per- 
sonal at $115,800. Its population in 1875 was 1,279. Brookside Cem- 
etery is located in the town, and the ruins of an Indian fort are among the 
interesting studies of the vicinity. 


Was erected from Lorraine May 2, 1848, and was given its name from 
Gen. W. J. Worth, of the U. S. Army, by a committee appointed for the 
purpose. A. S. Gillett was its first supervisor. Settlements were made 
in 1802. In 1805 a rude saw and grist mill was built, and in 1806 the 
first school was taught in a log barn. Its population in 1875 was 767. It 
contains 26,743 acres, much of which is still an unbroken forest. Its 
assessed valuation is as follows : Real estate, $236,490 ; personal, $3,520. 
The town comprises the highest land in the county. The surface is undu- 
lating. The Lorraine shale appears here. The principal industries are 
grazing and the lumber trade. Worthville and Worth Centre are its re- 
maining post offices. 


Was erected April 2. 181 3, and Thomas Bray ton was its first supervisor. 
Wolf bounties were given until 1828, and in 1831 path masters were 
allowed to lay out three day's labor in destroying noxious weeds. Settle- 
ments commenced in this town in 1798 by Henry Bouten. The estab- 
lishment of a forge at Carthage gave the first impulse to the growth of the 
place, and the interest in this branch of industry is kept up to this day. 
Nail works were erected in 1828 and continued ten years. In 1846 a nail 
factory and rolling mill were built. This interest, with the several 
branches of industry- which it fostered, with the advantages of a fine water 

126 WATER TOWN, N. Y, 

power, gave a steady growth to the village of Carthage. This village \.^^as 
incorporated May 26, 1841, and Virgil Brooks elected its first' president. 
It is a busy, thrifty village of 3,000 inhabitants, the largest village in .he 
county. It contains 36 stores of all kinds, 5 hotels, among which is *he 
Levis House (O. S. Levis, proprietor,), one of the best in the county, 7 
churches (Bap., Meth., Pres., Epis., Dis., Cath., Cong.), 3 fine school 
houses, with a school population of 500. Its industries are varied ;ind 
extensive. Among them are 7 saw mills, 2 flour mills, 2 tub and ])ail 
factories, 2 woolen or knitting mills, 2 sash and blind factories, i mop-srick 
and brush-handle factory, 3 large tanneries, i blast furnace, 2 iron foan- 
dries, 2 planing mills, i hay-rake factory, i cabinet factory, i wool carding 
mill, I spring-bed factory, i brewery, i carriage shop, &c. The vill ige 
contains 2 public halls. Black river supplies water power for all ?his 
amount of business. The village is one of the most important stations on 
the U. & B. R. R. R., and is the northern terminus of the Black River 
Canal. The Republica7i, a newspaper of extensive circulation, is pub- 
lished here. The other post offices in Wilna are Natural Bridge, North 
Wilna, and Wilna, The town contains 37,768 acres of land, assessed at 
$1,137,420, personal at $67,550. Population in 1875, 4,265. 


Jefferson county and vicinity offer rare attractions to sportsmen, which 
are duly appreciated and enjoyed by the disciples of Izaak Walton, and the 
devotees of "fur and feather." Good fishing and hunting abound in 
many sections. We mav summarize somewhat as follows : 

Speckled trout are found in the stream near Burrs Mills, 6 miles distant and in the streams 
of the Salmon River District, 20 miles southeast. Many other streams also, yield plentifully 
of this coveted fish. Salmon trout are taken in Lake Ontario, and at the foot of the Lake above 
Cape Vincent. Black bass are found in the lake and down the St. Lawrence, in the vicinity 
of the many islands. Pike and pickerel abound in all the bays of the lake. Muscalonge 
are taken plentifully near Cape Vincent, down the St. Lawrence, and in Indian River and 
Red and Muscalonsre lakes in Theresa. Perch are found in all the bays of the lake and in 
Perch lake and river. 

Deer and bears challenge the hunter to the north woods, easily reached from Lowvilk , on 
the U. & B. R. R. R. and many parties annually take tours into this wilderness. Ru.fled 
^ouse abound irf all parts of the county. Woodcock and snipe are good shooting in tneir 
season, in almost all the marshes of the county, and wild duck are abundantly taken o\. the 
St. Lawrence, Perch lake and along the bays "of Lake Ontario. A large marsh near ^Vood- 
ville is especiall.y attractive for this species of game. Wild geese are taken on Lake Onta- 
rio. Watertown has three Sportsmcns' Clubs, and Adams one, and the excellent game Jaws 
of the State are sought to be enforced in all parts of the count}', jivery town is supj.lied 
with a game constable, to aid in punishing law-breakers. 


A volume could be filled in enumerating and describing the varied sum- 
mer resorts of Northern New York, but we content ourselves with a s:m- 
ple list of the attractions of the county in this direction : 

Alexandria Bay. — On the river St. Lawrence, and in the midst of the fine scenery oi the 
Thousand Islands. Hotels: Crossmon House, an excellent hotel under the managemeLl. of 

C. Crossmon & Son. (See illustration and advertisement.) Thousand Island House, and 
St. Lawrence Hotel. Excellent fishing and boating. 

Cape Vincent.— On the St. Lawrence. Hotels: St. Lawrence, Rathbun and Rail oad 
House. Fine fishing is found here. 

Clatton.— Beautifully situated on the St. Lawrence River. Hotels: Walton Hous-', S. 

D. Johnston, Proprietor; (See illustration and advertisement.) Hubbard House, J T. 
Hubbard, proprietor. Two fine hotels, excellently managed. Boating and good fis Jng 
are prominent among its attractions. 

Fishers Landing.— On the St. Lawrence. Hotel : Grand Central House. 
Henderson Harbor.— Romantic scenery, good fishing and boating. Hotel: Froi tier 
House. Private boarding house: Capt. H. R. Warner. 

Saci^jits Harbor.— On Lake Ontario. Fine fishing and boating. Hotels: Evel igh 
House, D. W. Beardsley, proprietor; Earl House, R. M. Earl, proprietor. 

Theresa.— Fine huuLiiig and fishing, iind romantic scenery. 

Thousand Island Camp Ground.— On Wells Island, river St. Lawrence. 

WATER TOWN, N. Y. 127 



Furnished for this Book, through the Courtesy op C. W. Seaton Esq., Superin- 
tendent OF THE Census, Albany, N. Y. 

Acres of improved land in county 556,616 

" unimproved land in county 200,010 

Casu value ol farms .$32,587,363 

•' " farm buildings (not dwellings), 3,470,614 

" " stock, , 4,536,626 

*' " tools and implements 1,114,956 

' '• gross sales from farms in 1874 3931,027 

Acies plowed in 1874 118,776 

" " 1875 118,320 

" pasture " 258,706 

" meadow inl874 172,417 

inl875 176,076 

Total tons of liay, 1874 196,504 

Acres spring wheat, 1874 15,893 

Busliels harvested, " 244,860 

Acres winter wheat, 1873 1,918 

Bushels harvested 1874 80,577 

Acres oats, 1874 57,499 

Bushels harvested, 1S74 1,861,206 

Acres winter rye, 1873 2,894 

Bushels harvested, 1874 34,923 

Acres barley 1874 ^ 12,729 

Bushels harvested 1874 319,011 

Acres buckwheat 1874 1,633 

Bushels harvested 1874, 26,457 

Acres Indian corn 1874 9,752 

Bushels harvested 1874 321,000 

Acres potatoes 1874, 6,203 

Bushels harvested 1874 732,794 

Acres peas 1874, 4 086 

Bushels harvested 1874, 88,350 

Acres beans 1874, 1,433 

Bushels harvested 1874, 22,196 

Acreshops 1874, v 340 

Pounds harvested 1874, 165,530 

Pounds maple sugar 1S75, 529,414 

Total number of milch cows 1875.. 60,876 

Average number 1874, 59,126 

Milk sent to factory 1874, number of cows. 32,813 

'• 1875, " "• 34,234 

Number of pounds of butter made by families 1874 4, 253,429 

cheese " " " 609,700 

NuEiber of horses over two years old owned in 1875, 13, 798 

hogs slaughtered 1874, .-- U 304 

" pounds of pork 1874 - 3,188,224 

" sheep shorn 1875, -- 13 407 

pounds of wool, 1875, -- - 79,059 

Value of poultry owned 1874, 53.953 

" eggSSOld 1874, 63,478 



Jefferson Co. Board of Supervisors, 1876. 

Adams O. D. Greene 

Alexandria A, A. Holmes 

Antwerp A. Chapin 

Brownville O. M. Wood 

Cape Vincent L. O. Woodruff 

Champion James Sterling 

Clayton John Johnston 

EUisburgh Isaac P. Wddell 

Henderson John Chairman 

Homisfield S. N. Hodges 

LeRay F. Waddingham 

Lorraine O. C. Tucker 

Lyme C. M. Empie 

Orleans P. Newton 

Pamelia J. B. Leavitt 

Philadelphia. . . .George E. Tucker 

Rodman George A. Gates 

Rutland George W. Smith 

Theresa John Parker 

Watertown (town), .H. S. Barbour 
" city, 1st ward. . .Thos. Keenan 
" " 2d " Jno. C. Knowlton 
" " 3d " T. C. Chittenden 
" " 4th " Charles W. Sloat 

Wilna James Galvin 

Worth H. V. Jenks 

Clerk of the Board. . . . W. D. V. Rulison. 
Of&cers of Jefferson County. 

County Judge, A. H. Sawyer, Watertown ; Special Judge, J. B. Emmes, 
Carthage ; Sheriff, A. W. Peck, Watertown ; Under Sheriff, J. L. Baker, 
Watertown ; County Clerk, J. Stears, Jr., Watertown ; Deputy Co. Clerk, 
Geo. Cole, Watertown ; District Attorney, W. M. Rogers, Watertown ; 
Surrogate, W. W. Taggart, Watertown ; Special Surrogate, R. C. Scott, 
Watertown; County Trec-;3urer, L. W. Tyler, Theresa; Deputy County 
Treasurer, Geo. Smith, Watertown ; Justices of Sessions, E. D. Hilts, 
Cape Vincent, Lysander H. Brown, Watertown ; Coroners, L. F. Phillips, 
Watertown, Geo. N. Hubbard, Carthage, P. Caswell, Clayton ; School 
Commissioners, W. H. H. Sias, Henderson, A. E. Sawyer, Carthage, D. 
A. Watson, Redwood ; Loan Commissioners, Milton Converse, Water- 
town, H. Bailey, Lorraine. 

Miscellaneous. — Member ot Congress, 22d District, G. A. Bagley, 
Watertown; Senator i8th District, J. F. Starbuck, Watertown. 


It has been our aim to produce a book worthy of Watertow'n, and it 
must tell its own stor}^ Its omissions and errors must be overlooked, 
while we all hope that some of the objects ot its publication may be at- 
tained. The writer takes this occasion to express personal thanks to Dr. 
Franklin B. Hough, of Lowville, author of the most complete History of 
Jefferson County ever published, for his permission to quote at pleasure 
from that invaluable work, and also to Mr. D. S. Marvin, Mr. R, A. Oakes, 
Mr. F. A. Hinds, Mr. D. Minthorn, and Mr. J. L. Hotchkin, of Watertown, 
for many favors cheerfully rendered. If the interest which has been man- 
ifested by all classes of our citizens in the completion of this publication 
shall now result in any degree of pleasure or satisfaction to them, it will 
be a source of gratification to one who has spent time and labor in pre- 
senting it to the public. 




Agricultural Statistics.. 12T 

Black River. Its source & tributaries 20 

" " Its water power 23 

Banking Institutions '9 

Business Blocks 66 

Boots and Shoes 27 

Cotton Goods - 39 

Churcties 83 

Cemeteries ^"^ 

Conclusion - 128 

Dedication, 4 

Early manufacturing enterprises 17 

Economic Geology- of Jefferson Co — 29 

Fire Department. 77 

Fire and Pluck 59 

Financial 98 

Geography, 11 

History 12 

Horticulture of Jefferson Co 33 

Hotels 82 

Healthfulness 96 

Introduction 7 

Iron interests of Jefferson Co 42 

Illustrations 57 

Insurance Companies Si 

Jefferson County, description of 112 

Jefferson Co. Board of Supervisors... 128 

" " Officers of 12.S 

Leather trade 27 

Maps— description of 25 

Minerals 32 

Miscellaneous 99 

Manufactories 102 

Newspapers 90 

Population 62 

Public Schools 70 

Public Square 64 

Public Buildings, &c 66 

Piallway enterprises and advantages 50 
Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg R. E. 52 

Schools 70 

Societies 94 

Sporting, 126 

Summer resorts 126 

To the reader 6 

Tanneries 37 

Utica & Black River R. R 55 

Utilized water power 24 

Watertown Manufacturers Aid Ass'n. 5 
" General advantages, &c... 9 

Water power of Black River 23 

Woolen goods 39 


Watertown in 1804 53 

" Village government 5S 

" as a City , 60 

" City government 61 

" In 1876 62 

" General appearance and 

characteristics 63 

" Water works 75 

" Fire Department 77 

" Caverns, 96 

What industry has done 65 

What others say of us no 



Black River Falls 2 

Suspension Bridge 2 

Hubbard's Block 69 

Watertown High school 71 

Taggarts & Davis' Paper Mill 101 

Watertown Spring \\'agon CO's Works 103 

Hungerford Collegiate Inst 115 

Union Academy. 120 

Court House .opposite 4 

Geological section " 28 

R. W. & O. R. R. depot, " 52 

Watertown in 1S04 " 56 

1873 " 60 

Es-Mayor Winslow.. •' 60 

vVinslow Block " 64 

Washington Hall <' 68 

Van Namee's Building " 76 

Agricultural Ins. Co s B'lding •' 80 

Woodruff House " 84 

Times and Reformer building " 92 

Despatch & Re-Union b'ldng " 96 

Knowlton Bros. Paper Mill.. " loo 
Watertown Steam Engine 

Go's Works " 104 

Bagley& Sewall's Foundry.. " lOS 

Doolittle & Hall Block " 88 

American House " 36 

Streeter Block " 48 

CrownerHouse " 40 

Paddock Buildings " 72 

Mayor Brown " 61 

Da\ls Sewing Machine Works " 112 

W^alton House, adv. 11 

Scripture & Clark's Carriage Reposi- 
tory, adv. IV 

Crossmon House, adv. xii 

U. & B. R. R. R. 




Northern N. Y., the River St. Lawrence & Canada. 


BROCKVILLE 48 miles I PHILADELPHIA, N. Y 16 k^ miles 

OTTAWA (via C.C.&B.&0.R.)----13 " | CLAYTON & ALEX. BAY 20 " 


To UTICA, ALBANY, NEW YORK, ami POINTS EAST. Also 21 miles tlie 
Sliortest Route from TJtica to Montreal, 


Main Line (I^tlca to Watertown) 91.49 miles 

Sackets Harbor Division (Watertown to Sackets Harbor) 12.20 " < 

Clayton Division (Tlieresa Junction to Clayton) 15.86 " 

Morristown Division (Carthage to Morrlstown) 49.17 " 

Total , 168.73 miles 

EASTERN POINTS and only route running all trains through 

From WATERTOWN to UTICA without Transfer of Passengers 

or Baggage. Close connections made at Utlca (Union Depot) with all fast and special 
express trains on the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad to and from all 
points East and West. 



With the New York Central & Hudson River. Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 
and U. C. & B. Railroads. 


With the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad. 

AT CliAl^TON, 

During the summer season, with Steamer for <4ananoque, and with the R. & O. N. 
Co's Royal Mail and Express Line of Steamers. Also with Steamer for Alexandria Bay 
and at Alexandria Bay Avith Royal Mail Line and Steamer Stranger. All lines of 
Steamers on the River St. Lawrence stop at Claj^on. 


With Ferry to Brockville, and at Brockvllle with the Canada Central and Brock- 
vllle & Ottawa Railway for Ottawa and points north. Also with Grand Trunk Railway 
for Montreal, &c. 

ir^^The Ferry at Morristown leaves the dock at the Utlca & Black River R, R. De- 
pot and lands directly at the Canada Central & Brockville & Ottawa Railway dock, 
thus avoiding all transfers and delays. The Grand Trunk Railway station Is within 
one-half mile of the ferry landing at Brockville. 


If you cannot get through tickets buy to L'tica only. Passengers for Northern New 
York and Canada give this new route a trial. 


GeneralPassenger Agent, Utlca N. Y. General Superintendent. 






I — I 









I— I 


























Most Simple, Compact 4 Duralile Sliuttle Macliifie in Use 

// !s simple in Construction^ Certain in its Results, Durable in all its Parts, and is 
adapted to a Greater Range of Work than any other Machine. 

A great many macliines have been offered to tlie public, a few of wliicli possessed 
sufficient merit to give tliem a Avidespread reputation, while tlie others, for various 
reasons, have proved unpopular. Some were so complicated in their mechanical 
structure that it required a machinist to operate and keep them in order ; others run 
very hard, and many machines would not do the whole range of work, from the light- 
est to the heaviest goods. It has been our study to produce a machine so simple as to 
be readily understood, and at the same time meet all the reauireme nts of the public. 

The Vertical Feed is the greatest advance made in Sewing Mechanism since the 
invention of Sewing Machines. We invite a careful examination of it, believing no 
one can fail to recognize the fact that it is the most perfect Sewing Machine made. 
Visitors to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia will find the machines on exhi- 
bition, doing all kinds of work, in MachineiT Hall. For further information and 
terms, address 



Or any of its Principal Offices : BOSTON. 10 Montgomery Place ; PHILADELPHIA, 
1223 Chestnut st. ; CHICAGO, 157 State St. ; MILWAUKEE. 336 Spring St. ; RAVENNA, 
O., Main St. ; ERIE, Pa., 829 State st. ; SAN FRANCISCO, California, 130 Post St. 

































S CS C3 

3 .5 ^ 

Ph =S G 

cc crj ^ 
O) a:> "^ 








< ^ 











Seneca Falls, N'. Y. and Chicago, III. 














Lamps, &e., ^' 


Located at the Corner of Meadow and Prospect Streets, 

Strong healthy vines for immediate bearing, for ama- 
teurs and for cold climates are my specialties. Our climate 
gives me some advantages in propagating healthy stock, not 
attainable further south. 

For local trade, I keep a stock of fruit trees, small 
fruits, evergreens and shrubbery. 

Send estimates of wants for prices and price list. 





Fronts on Public Square, and is in close proximity to 
tlie R. W. & O. R. R. Depot. 

The proprietors trust that their endeavors for the past seven years have 
pleased their numerous patrons, and no pains will be spared in the future to 
merit a continuance of their liberal patronage. 








B. BROCKWAY, Editor and Proprietor, 

viii WATER TOWN, N. Y. 










Constantly on hand. Planing, Matching and Re-sawing 
done to order, at the shortest notice and on the most favor- 
able terms. 



Chas. W. Sloat. L. C. Greenleaf. P. Budlong. 





Watertown and OgdensbLirg, 

And all Points in Northern New York and Canada. 




Tlie main line of this road runs from Rome to Ogdensbiirg, (142 miles), tlirougli 
Oneida, Oswego, Jefferson and St. Lawrence Counties. The Lake Ontario Division, 
Richland to Lewiston. (175 miles), through Oswego, Wayne, Monroe, Orleans and 
Niagara Counties. Syracuse Division, Sandy Creek to Syracuse. (45 miles. ) Water- 
town, to Cape Vincent, (26 miles ) De Kalb Junction to Potsdam Junction, (25 miles.) 


At Rome, Syracuse, Charlotte and Lewiston with the New York Central and Hud- 
son River Railroad. At Oswego with the Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad, 
and New York & Oswego ]Midland Railroad. At Cape Vincent with Steamers (during 
the season of navigation), for Kingston, Clayton, Alexandria Bay, Montreal, etc., pass- 
ing through 


At Ogdensburg with steamers for Brockville and Montreal Also with ferry for 
Prescott and at Prescott with the St. Lawrence & Ottawa Railroad for Ottawa, and the 
Grand Trunk Railway for Brockville and Montreal. At Potsdam Junction with the 
Central Vermont Railroad. Also with stage line for Massena Springs. At Watertown 
for Sackets Harbor. At Philadelphia with the Utica & Black River Railroad for 
Theresa, Redwood, Clayton and Morristown. 


This is the only Road in Northern Nc^v York tliat Runs I>ra\Ting; 
Room Cars and Through Sleeping Cars to Ne\i^ York. 

Through tickets can be procured at all the principal ticket offices of connecting 
lines, and of this Company. 

Fare as Low and Time Quicker than by any other Route. 



Gen'l Ticket Agent. Gren'l Superintendent. 




Manufacturer of and Wliolesale^Dealer in 






T^OR Wells and Cisterns. 

Ihe Onlf Reliable Wooden Pump 

In the Mai-ket. Also 

For Conducting Heater Underground. 

Soiaci for Oix-o-Lxlsti-, .i^ciciiross, 



W A ft 'fi. .^^v ,...« .. 



|anlla aud |jjeits papers, 


















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CD t^j g 

S £ S 

o k1 .X 

t-j ?C '^ 

Ci k; o 

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CD tr] 















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WATER TOWN, N. Y. xiii 

j^ S S I X S 8 1< ^ 



]Sro. 7 AV^ooclruff House, Watertown, I^. Y. 



€'ifjttrs, Johacco, 1*ipes, 8tc. 




No. 35 Arsenal Street, Watertown, X. Y. 

The Watertown Post Is a tlurty-si.x poluinn newspaper, liaving a larger circula- 
tion in Nortliern \"e\v York than any otlier weekly paper, and being largely taken by 
the fanning anfl dairying class, is fcr these reasons the best advertising medium in 
this section oi tlie State. Connected with the printing establishment is also a coni- 
nlete book innding and straw 1)o:ird hnx manufactory, where all orders in these 
branches of business are neatly and promptly executi^d." 

L. INGALLS, Proprietor. 



^i)oors, Sash, T3lmds, 

Mouldiu;^s, IVindo-iV and Door FraDic^, Planing and Scrdl Salving. Joiner 
Work Done to Older. Also Dealers in Freneh \Vindou< Glass. 



xiv WATER TOWN, N. Y. 






E. M. Gates. J. W Spratt. 



Stoves, Furnaces, Tin, Copper, Sheet Iron Ware, 

Iron Roofing, Plumbing, House Furnishing Goods Etc. 

Manufacturers of the " SUITIITIER KINO ''COOK STOVE, Adapted 

to Burn Kerosene. Also. ITIanufaoturers oftlie Iron 

Clad inilk Pan~Tl»e Best Pan ITIade. 

Send lor Circulars. 


IewJs. he IV rich & ROUNDS. 


fur^llm^t ^f all ^l^4i^# 





Balconies, Window- Guards, Shutters, Gratings, Vases, Fountains, Roof Crestings 
Stable Fixtures, Floxver Stands. Iron Settees, Etc. 

Also Agent for Terwilligrer & Co's Fire and Burglar Proof Safes. 



X Iff 

Inquire for the Establishment doing the LARGEST 

Tou Can't mistake the Place. 

More Clothing, More Furnishing Goods, More Salesmen, More 
Business. No misrepresentation, no deception. No " molasses to 
catch flies with." No humbug, but square dealing characterizes all 
Our Number, 16 Woodruff House. - J. C. STREETER & CO. 



Ccnrupbeil, Fari/^eVL ^ Co., 

®fff §®©i 



No. 8 Court St., Watertown, N. Y. 






•v\;^..^T:E:3F5-TO"v\r:]Nr^ idt. ^^. 

W. F. Belknap. , J. L. Phelps. 

An associated Stock Bank of Discount, Deposit and Exchange. 
Special attention paid to collections. Bonds, Stocks, Mortgages, and 
other investment Securities Bought and Sold. 


J. F. MOFFETT, Cashier, 


\mmk ^ 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Door and Windo7u Frames, Brackets^ ofc. Also Dealers in French Plate, 

Embossed, Ground and Cut Door Glass, French and American 

Windozv Glass. Fainting and Glazing 

Done to Order. 

Manufactory and Office North End Suspension Bridge 

i;&.^8Sk WATERTOWN, N. Y. 




1)10% mid 0ii)i 


Starlilc Building, 

15 ^a?lii)igtop ^t., toatefto^n, )il, Y. 

Railroad and Insurance Printing 

S, J. Kenyon, 

C. E. Holl.rook. 

M W^^^^^^^^ ^orninQ ges^nich 

A live daily, containing all the important news from abroad, 
and throughout the county. $6.00 a year, in advance. 

The Despatch is the only democratic daily in northern New 
York, and is one of the best advertising mediums in the State. 

A first-class weekly democratic journal, devoted to the interests ol 
the masses. Best advertising medium in northern New York. $1.75 
per year in advance. 

JOB WORK executed in the best style, on short notice, and 
on reasonable terms. Posters, Dates and Programmes a specialty. 

W C. HAVEN, Proprietor, 



xviii WATERTOWN, N. Y. 

[established 1853.] 


(A Stock Company, Chartered in 1853.) 
• ASSETS, - - - $1,053,0^0.16. 

CAPITAL, $200,000. SURPLUS, $858,040.16. 

JOHN C. COOPER, - - - President. 

John A. Sherman, Vice Pres. Isaac Munson, Secretary. 

H. Dewey, Gen'l Agent. H. M. Stevens, Ass't Sec. 

Insures notliing: but 

Farm Property and Private Residences. 

This Company has paid for losses, since its organization, $1,823,205.95. 

Extract from Charter^ Article 2 ; 

" This Company is organized for the purpose of insuring Farmers' Dwellings, Private 
Residences, Barns and other out Buildings, with their contents," and is strictly con- 
fined to this class of Property. 


Assets, January 1st, 1876. 

Loans on Bonds and Mortgages, (1st lien) $414,423 84 

Real Estate owned hy the Company 80,399 81 

Loans on Collaterals, valued at $138,195 84,660 59 

Premiums in due course of Collection, 84,112 24 

Cash in Company's Office 12,414 63 

Cash in Merchants' Bank, Watertown, N. Y .-.. 48,210 11 

Cash in Jefferson County Bank, Watertown, N. Y 24,939 00 

Interest and Rent due and accrued 18,079 88 

Stocks and Bonds owned hy the Company 230,800 00 

Total Assets, $1,058,040.16 



steam Engine Company 





8 to 100 horse power. 

mum [NGIN[S 

3 to 20 Horse Power. 

With Single and Double Saws, of Four sizes. ■ 

Agricultural Engines, 

3 to 10 Horse Power. 

Vertical Engines and 

Circulars with cuts ami prices, sent 
on application. 


C. A. Sherman, President. D. W. Baldwin, Secretary, 




Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Foreign & Domestic Dry Goods, 

Carpets, Oil Clotlis, JMattin^s, R^^^S5 
&C.5 Fine Carpets a Specialty. 

No. 6 Winslow Building Watertown, N. Y. 

Geo. G. ChamberSi 







■r^t^ Ki^^s-^^s^ V^- 

And Wholesale Dealer in 

Clewing and SmoklM Totecco, 




No. II Arsenal St. 

Wateftowri, X- ^- 


Willow Baskets, Drums, Rocking Horses, Carriages, Etc. at 
No. 6 Arcade, Watertown, Jf. T. 


WATER TOWN, N. Y. xxi 




Unequalecl for very artistic effects and prices. 



to life, or any size, plain or finished, in the highest style 

of coloring, 



Our coloring done by the best painters New York city affords. Our 
new styles invite the attention of those wanting 

i^i:e=lst oij.^^ss "vs7"o:e^is:. 

PRICES LOW.— A call will satisfy. CHARLES S. HART. 

1^ t 


Formerly with CMckering & Co., Landscape and Drainage Engineers, IS Wall Street, 

New York. 
Attention given to tlie engineering and superintendence of construction of rail- 
roads, water-Avorks, the sewerage and drainage of cities and lands, the laying out of 
parks and pleasiu'e grounds and general landscape engineering. 

■ Also to land surveys, hoth in city and country, and conveyances made out in 
accordance with surveys. Facilities and experience in tracing titles and delineating 
houndries from the (:ounty records. 

Practice among the government surveys and lands of the West, as well as NeAv 
York State, with the most approved and accurate instruments. 

Hancliett House, 

"VST. O. :E3:£^, IF'i-cdid'z-. 
Nos. 12 Arsenal Street, and 13 Court Street, near Public Square. 

Ooocl Accouiinodatioiis for Commercial Travellers. 


Tenns $Q.OO per Dfty, 

Personal Altention Paid to the Gomfwt of Guests. 



Homestead Fire Insurance Co., 

ASSETS, ^269,477.70. 



Hon. Allen C. Beach, Pres. John C. Sterling, Tice-Pres. 

Henry S. Mnnson, Sec. Myers Thompson, Treas. 

Jerome BushneU, General Agent. 



■Outside blinds opened and 
closed from the inside, fasten- 
ed open or shut, all 


No more slammin^s: in the 

Pronounced l.i)' ALL builders 
and house owners who have 
tested it to be one of the 

MOST ysEpt 

and CONVENIENT of mod- 
ern improvements. 

AGENTS WANTED to sell the Goods in all parts of the United States. 
Manufactured by Holbrook Patent Blind-Hinge Co., Watertown, N. Y. 

J. A. Sherman, President. I. Munson, V. Pres't. W. G. Williams, Sec'y & Treas. 



Improved for 1876. Over 20,000 now in use in Ohio and otlier Western States. 
Only Practical Macliine of the kind before the Public. 

The oflQcers of the Jefferson County Agriciiltiu'al Society consider it "</te 6e5i mo - 
chine for the purpose ever brought to our notice.'''' 

John Stanton Gould, ex-President of the N. Y. State Agricultural society, says ; 
"I cordially commend it to the farmers of New York and elsewhere. It will last a 
life time." 

micie, - §io. 

Lawlor & Co., Watertown, N. Y., Proprietors and Manufacturers. Agents wanted 
in every county in the State of New York, 

WATER TOWN, N. V. xxili 

^ffiins© ¥@mf ®w©lll3 




it insures nothing more liazardous than RESIDENCES. It pays losses 
from lightning, whether fire ensues or not. No company can be on a 
sounder basis, and few, if an)-, more prosperous. Its large re-insurance 
reserve, with its capital set aside for the protection of its policy holders, 
makes them doubly secure. 

Cash Capital, $200,000.00. 

Casll Surplus, (securely invested for the security of its 

Policy Holders, being more than twice the capital,) over 494,075.63. 

Total Assets, over $700,000.00. 

Hon. W. Ives, President. Jesse M. Adams, Secretary. 

C. H. Waite, General Agent. U. S. Gilbert, Vice-Pres 


JSd^ajuifcLctzLTeTS of Larrvps^ 



These Lamps give a powerful and agreeable light— have no chimneys- 
burn any of the fat (or greasy) oils — will burn 12 hours and upwards— no 
smoke or odor. 

This lamp will be adapted to use in residences, street cars, lanterns, etc. 
The Company will also produce a lamp for burning kerosene without 
chimneys that will burn i2 hours. 
John M. Si^ourney, Thomas C. Chittenden, 

President. Secretary. 





Jot)t>ers of Notions and Jewelry. 

Retail Dealers in Dry Goods, Jewelry, 
Notions, &c. 


Cheese and Butter Factory Supplies. 

Boilers, Engines and General Hard- 
ware, No, 11, Washington street. 


Attorneys and Counsellors at Law, 

Winslow Arcade, Watertown N. Y. 

B. Winslow, H. Smith. 

TT M. ROWE & Co. 

Oyster Depot. 

No. 1. Washington Hall, Watertown, 
N. Y. J. T. Ross, Agent. 



Drugs, Groceries, Ropes, Twines and Dye 
Manufacturer of Domestic Glue. 
No. 13, Woodruff House. 

-p\ B. SANFORD & Co., 

Millinery and Fancy Goods, 

No. 5 and T Washington Hall Block, 
Watertown, N. Y. 



Books and Stationery, Paper Hangings, 
Window Shades, Oval Frames 
and Mouldings. 
No. 10 Washington street, Watertown, 
N. Y. 


Tohacco, Cigars, Fishing Tackle, and 
Fire Arms. 
Insurance and Railroad Tickets. 
No. 5. Arcade, Watertown, N. Y. 


Pianos, and Organs Music, Etc. 

Watertown, N. Y. 


Hats, Caps, Furs and Gents Furnishing 
Goods, Wholesale and Retail. 
No. 7 Paddock Building. 


Musical Merchandise, Picture Frame 

Agents for Weher Piano. No. 10, Pad- 
dock's Arcade. 


Crockery, China and Glass Ware, Silver 
Plated Ware and Cutlery. 

No. 22 Court street. 

News Depot. Branch Ticket Office U. & 
B. R. R. R, 

No, 5, Arcade. 

Books, Stationery, Paper Hanging, 

Shades, Frames and 


No 8. Washington Place. 

Choice Family Groceries, 

No. 6. Washington street. 

Dry Goods, Cloths and Notions, 

No. 5 Paddock Building. 


Rich and Plain Furniture, 

No. 26 Court Street. 

Merchant Tailor, Clothing and Gents' 
Furnishing Goods. 

No. 12 Court street. 


Marble and Granite Works. 
Next door to Kirhy House, Court street 



Drugs, Medicines, Chemicals, Paints, 

Oils, Varnishes, Dye, Stuffs, 

Soaps, Perf imiery, &c . 

No. 6 Washington Place. 


3 9999 04041 357 5 

[Oct., 1884, 20,000] 


One volume allowed at a time, and obtained only by card; 
to be kept 14 days (or seven days in the case of fiction and 
juvenile books published within one year,) without fine; not 
to be renewed; to be reclaimed by messenger after 21 days, 
who will collect 20 cents besides fine of 2 cents a day, includ- 
ing Sundays and holidays; not to be lent out of the borrower's 
household, and not to be transferred; to be returned at this Hall. 

Borrowers finding this book mutilated or unwarrantably 
defaced, are expected to report it; and also any undue delay 
in the delivery of books. 
*;^*No claim can be established because of the failure of any 
notice, to or from the Library, through the mail. 

The record below must not be made or altered by borrower. 


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